Midterm 1 - Learning Outcomes

Discuss the interdisciplinary nature of Health & Exercise Sciences; list several sub-disciplines topic areas and describe their utility to our objective of optimizing human health
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Terms in this set (75)
Define motivated reasoning and describe how/why it happens and how/why it impairs judgmentConclusion benefits ourself: skewing something to be viewed the way you want to see itDefine confirmation bias and describe four ways it can manifest to impair judgment in various situations (4 steps)Confirming our own beliefs 1. seeking out confirmatory evidence 2. interpreting evidence to be supportive 3. remembering that supportive evidence 4. dismissing unsupportive evidenceDescribe and recognize common logical fallacies (6)1. Appeal to authority - celebrity 2. Appeal to nature - 'natural' = good 3. Bandwagon fallacy- majority is always right 4. Non sequitur - not in sequence 5. Correlation (X) causation - cause implies effect 6. Posh Hoc eergo hoe - event y followed x therefore y was caused by xDescribe intellectual humility and why it is critical to critical thinking.Mental vulnerability, flexibility, seek truth, GET IT RIGHT NOT BE RIGHTDefine health equity, privilege and oppression- Health equity: everyone has equal access to health without having to change any part of themselves - Privilege: a group has something of value that is denied to others because of the group they belong to, not because of something they've done - Oppression: advantage/ disadvantage based on social groupDescribe the difference between implicit and explicit bias and describe the relationship between bias (predicts behaviour), stereotypes and discriminationImplicit Bias: unintentional Explicit Bias: intentional Stereotype: preconceived notions of someone (SOCIAL GROUP) Discrimination: unjust treatment based on race, gender, age, disabilityDescribe what systems of oppression (responsible for health inequities) are and how they operate at the individual, institutional, and societal levelsystems rooted in Hierarchies: - Individual (conscious or unconscious) - Institutional (policies, laws) - Societal (world media, art, language)Identify some specific systems of oppression that contribute to health inequitiesTransportation, Lack of accessibility to healthcare, Employment, EducationDescribe why brave spaces are important for engaging in difficult but important conversationsWhere personal growth happens. Puts you in a slightly uncomfortable/ vulnerable positionExplain how experience of health care, access to health care, and health outcomes are all relatedall factors to achieving HEALTH EQUITY experience->access->outcomes (how you're treated) (calling ambulance, seeking treatment, checks)Describe what we know about implicit bias amongst health care professionals and about how bias can manifest as discrimination in healthcare settingsBias predicts behaviour can lead to inconsistent and unjust treatment, inaccurate results, takes longer for diagnoses - (age, race, users, disability)Define colonialism and reconciliation and describe the role of truth in reconciliationColonialism: imposing worldviews on a group of people making them conform (create laws that violate rights, policies to extinguish) residential schools, sixties scoop Reconciliation: (repair damaged trust) act and attempt defined by indigenous to amend past wrongdoings TRC: re-establishing and maintaining respectful relationshipsSummarize the findings of the "In Plain Sight" report.- examined indigenous-specific racism within the province - pov of patients, and indigenous healthcare workers - recommends immediate efforts to diminish discrimination and prejudice toward indigenous - essential if we want accessible effective healthcare systemExplain the concept of cultural safety and why it should be an essential part of training for healthcare professionalsdesired outcome DEFINED BY INDIGENOUS PEOPLE - consultation w indigenous - outward-facing - cultural safetyExplain the concept of cultural humility and why it is essential to professional practice and to reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples- Cultural Humility: in depth examination of a providers assumptions and beliefs - self-reflection/critique - inward-facingDescribe how identity is multidimensional and explain how a person's positionality (social location) can influence their lived experience and their perspectives/world viewMultidimensional: numerous influences on someones identity (multiple layers) Positionality: social location (surrounding environment), influencing their world views (and identity)Define diversity and explain why diversity of identity (mir/win), experience, and perspective are all valuableDiversity: concept conveying the existence of differences Diversity of identity: - mirrors (seeing yourself represented) - windows (looking to see something different) Value: diverse teams, multiple views and opinions (better innovation and problem solving)Inclusionactive, intentional, conscious process (not needing someone to change any part of themselves)Contrast equality and equity. and explain why equity is more important when pursuing justice/fairnessEquality: does not lead to equal opportunity (same side box, tall fence) Equity: Leveling the playing field (multiple boxes depending on height) Justice/ Fairness: (taking down the fence and boxes) equity - leads to equal opportunity - taking obstacles into accountDefine privilege and describe some practical ways that access to privilege can manifest in a person's personal, professional, and health-related life.Explain how the concepts of inclusion, equity, diversity, and inclusive diversity are relatedEquity: equal opportunity Diversity: feeling included and represented at work Inclusive diversity: presence of differences in a specific settingCompare and contrast privilege and powerPrivilege: risks you take Power: INFLUENCE you have over othersSpheres of influence (3 I's)Individual: self-reflecting, ongoing learning Interpersonal: challenging behaviour and encouraging learning in others Institutional: challenging oppressive policiesIdentify the types and sources of power and describe how they could be wielded to work against oppressionDefine microaggressions and describe their impactsubtle derogatory interactions towards a marginalized group of people (may be unintentional) Impact: mental wellness, fear, anxiety, uncomfortableDescribe some reasons we should respond to microaggressions and why we might want to respond tactfully in professional settings- learning - unintentional may not even realize - help someone - boundaries within relationshipApply a variety of strategies to respond to microaggressions- share your own process - challenge the stereotype - put a pin in it - express your feeling - paraphrase or rephrase - separate intent from impactAnalyze a specific situation involving a microaggression and discuss the factors (including the role of privilege and power) that influence whether a person can/should/will respondPrivilege: about the risks you take (social group advantage) Power: influence over othersDefine primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and recognize when they are the goal of an interventionPrimary: preventing onset disease Secondary: early detection and prevention Tertiary: slowing or stopping the spread of a diseaseDescribe three common arguments for optimizing health through lifestyle management1. healthy lifestyle = healthy people 2. Contribute to the economy - healthy people can work longer 3. Cost healthcare system less - Dave taxpayer $$Compare and contrast the Canadian 24-h movement guidelines for four different age groups: 0-4 yearsMove: Physical activity Sleep: ~14h/day Sit: not for long, keep engaged, avoid tv5-17 yearsSweat: 1+h/day - moderate physical activity Step: light physical activity Sleep: 9-10h/day Sit: not often- -2h/day screen time18-64 yearsP.A.: 3h+/ week (65+ work on balance) Sleep ~8h/day Sit: no more than 3h/day - recreational screen timeList factors that influence a person's beliefs about health1. Life experience (culture, religion, authentic status, education) 2. General beliefs (concepts of health, preference) 3. Specific beliefs (condition that needs treatment)Discuss reasons why it is beneficial to have a definition of healthinvest (gov), prioritize, research, assess/advice (healthcare profs), what to do (individual)State the WHO 1948 definition of health and describe some of its strengths and weaknesses"STATE of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" Strength: more multidimensional (mental/emotional) Weakness: circular, *absence of disease is still essentialExplain the two main ways that our thinking about health shifted with the publication of the 1974 Lalonde Reportproposed the concept of the "health field" (4 factors influencing health) 1. Biological 2. Environmental 3. Lifestyle 4. Healthcare Organization identified two main health-related objectives; - healthcare system - prevention of health problems/promotion of good healthDescribe three ways that the 1986 Ottawa charter further shifted our thinking about health (from health to wellness)1. positive concept 2. resource for everyday life - not end goal 3. way of life and manner of livingContrast the concept of wellness with earlier definitions of healtholder: free from illness and disease, physical newer: circular and multidimensional - including emotional and mental well beingDescribe eight dimensions of wellness and list/recognize behaviours and attributes that align with each dimensionphysical, environmental, financial, social, spiritual, occupational, intellectual, emotionalProvide examples to illustrate that health exists on a continuum, is individual and dynamic, and that dimensions of health and wellness are interconnecteddaily life choices can affect overall health one day you may be healthy, the next have an event that causes illness can change dramatically and quickly 80yr old - 18 yr old Healthy Mind - Healthy BodyPredict how a life change or a perturbation in one or more dimensions of health and wellness might influence one or more other dimensionswhere we live, surrounding environment, income, genetics, education, relationships - can all impact our healthDiscuss the value in assessing individual and population healthIndividual: -identify current health concerns - monitor and track changes over time -evaluate the success of treatment Population: - identify current health concerns - monitor and track changes over time -evaluate the success the big 4 investigate PROTECTIVE RISK FACTORS (identify, monitor, evaluate)Define health outcome and give examples/recognize positive, negative, acute and chronic outcomesHealth Outcome: anything measurable to describe a change in a population's health status Positive: desirable (indicates good health) Negative: minimize/ avoid Acute: short term Chronic: prolongedContrast signs and symptoms (timing of health outcome and presence of disease)Acute: quick resolving Chronic: prolonged and may not resolveCompare and contrast the concepts of morbidity, mortality and disabilityMorbidity: the presence of disease (acute or chronic) Mortality: health before the age of 75 (premature death) Disability: limitations on daily livingPrevalencethe number % of a population that is diseased at any given time # of cases '/. total population size at that point x 100%Incidencenumber of new cases of a particular condition in a population during a *specific time* - population at risk must start healthy # of new cases (at given time period) '/. population size at RISK X 100%Calculating - YLL (years of life lost)Years of life lost due to premature death (before 75) (mortality) YLL= #of deaths X life expectancy at age of deathYLD (Years Lost due to Disability)The number of healthy years lost due to disease, illness or injury YLD = #of cases X duration until death X disability weight (severity of symptoms 0= healthy, 1= death)DALYs (disability-adjusted life years)combine years lost to mortality (premature death) and time living with disability DALY = YLL + YLDHealth Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)(A) years lived healthfully + (B) years lived with disability HALE = A + fB (f=weight reflecting disability)HRQOL (health related quality of life) +DomainsA multi-dimensional concept that includes domains related to physical, mental, emotional, and social functioning. It goes beyond direct measures of population health, life expectancy, and causes of death, and focuses on the IMPACT HEALTH STATUS HAS ON QUALITY OF LIFEExplain the purpose of a pre-participation health screening; briefly describe what is assessed (and how) as part of this process (PPE) - GAQunderstand/monitor/track/evaluate - maintain health and safety of individuals Get Active Questionnaire (able to treat/ within scope of practice)Describe what is being measured during Step 2 (ASSESS) of the CSEP-PATH®; discuss whether this constitutes assessment of health or of health riskunderstand clients lifestyle and select / perform examination/assessment of fitness/ skin/ physical activity level Health screening tool = Health risk (aware of medical conditions)Define the following terms and describe how they are related to each other: benefit, harm, risk, probability, risk factor, protective factorBenefit: contribution to positive health outcome (improve pain) Harm: contributing to negative health outcome (death, rash) Risk Probability: likelihood of harm occurring Risk Factor: condition/ characteristic/ exposure - health harm Protective Factor: associated with health benefitsList and recognize some social, environmental, and cultural risk factors and protective factors1. Social: - quality of healthcare (national) - availability of food (community) - support network (interpersonal) - socioeconomic status (individual) 2. Environmental: - air pollution - walkability 3. Cultural: - religious practices and normsDescribe the two categories of risk/protective factors and list/recognize examples1. Modifiable: *might be able to change 2. Non- modifiable: cannot change (age, genetics)Define behavioural *Big 4*, metabolic, and intermediate (unhealthy) risk factors and list/recognize examples of each1. Behavioural: - tobacco - alcohol - low P.A. - unhealthy diet 2. Metabolic: - genetic components 3. Intermediate - high 'bad; cholesterol - high BP - high body fatDefine NCD and list/recognize some of the most prevalent onesNon- Communicable Disease: lifestyle disease due to (behaviour, genetic, enviro factors)Provide a rationale for our discipline's focus on improving health by targeting NCDspath to reduce heath inequities - promote programs - target high risk groups - promote wellnessList the WHO's "big four" behavioral risk factors and "big four" NCDs and describe the relationships between themBehavioural: - Tobacco - Alcohol - Unhealthy diet - Low P.A. level NCD: - Heart disease - Chronic respiratory disease - Cancer - DiabetesDescribe the hierarchy of scientific evidence and explain the difference between original research and secondary literaturePrimary Lit: (raw) - Observational/ Experimental (original research, study, random control trial) Secondary Lit: (interpret prim sources) - Synthesis (review and analysis) - Practice guidelines (CSEP-PATH 24h mvmnt)Describe some arguments against emphasizing health as an individual responsibility- further marginalizes already separated groups - reinforces oppression - reinforces health inequitiesDiscuss some equity-minded strategies for promoting healthy behaviours that aim to maximize benefit and minimize harm for everyone.support patients where they are and promote programs and practices that are easily accessible for everyone (transport, education, childcare, housing)