Behaviour Modification Test 1

- Scientific:
- Active:
- present focus
- Learning Focus:
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Terms in this set (41)
Overt and Covert

Overt behaviours: actions that other people can directly observe (most often through sight or hearing) in a sense, they are public behaviours. Ex. eating, driving, walking, etc.

Covert behaviours: private behaviours, things we do that others cannot directly observe; however, we usually are aware of them when we ourselves engage in them
- Emotions
- physiological responses
- Describes the temporal sequence of antecedents, behaviour, and consequences - There are two categories of maintaining antecedents - prerequisites and stimulus controlABC Modelprompts Setting events2 types of stimulus control· Whereas maintaining antecedents are responsible for a behaviour's being performed in the first place, maintain consequences determine whether behaviour will happen occur again. ·When consequences of performing a behaviour are favorable, the individual is more likely to repeat it (behaviour).Maintain Consequences1. Clarifying the client's problem 2. Formulating initial goals for therapy 3. Designing a target behaviour (the specific behaviour that will be changed) 4. Identifying the maintaining conditions of the target behaviour 5. Designing a treatment plan (specific therapy procedures) to change the maintaining conditions 6. Implementing the treatment plan 7. Evaluating the success of the treatment plan 8.Conducting follow-up assessmentsThe Process of Behaviour TherapyA. Narrow in Scope B. Unambiguously defined C. Measurable D.Appropriate and AdaptiveCharacteristics of Good Target BehavioursAcceleration target behaviour - are increased and used to treat behavioural deficits, which are adaptive behaviours that clients are not performing often/long/strongly enough. Deceleration target behaviour - are decreased and are used to treat behavioural excesses, which are maladaptive behaviours that clients are performing too often/ for a long time/ strongly.Types of Target Behaviour:Its purpose is to (1) evaluate the success of a specific treatment for a particular client or (2) evaluate the general effectiveness of a specific treatmentOutcome researchcase studies, reversal studies, multiple baseline studies, and experiments4 methods of research to study the outcome and process of behaviour therapies:1. Meaningfulness of change 2. Transfer of change 3. Generalization of change 4.Durability of changeEFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPYare used to gather information relevant to clarifying clients problems, setting goals, selecting and designing target behaviours...Behavioural assessment procedures- Interview - Direct self-report inventory - Self-recording - Checklist/ rating scale - Systematic naturalistic observation - Simulated observation - Role-playing - Physiological measurement.8 most frequently used behavioural assessment methods:- multimethod assessment leads to a more comprehensive assessment than des employing a single method - Multimodal assessment is important because psychological disorders generally involve more than one mode.Multimethod and multimodal assessment:- is individualized - Focuses on the present - Directly samples relevant behaviours - Has a narrow focus - Is integrated with therapy.Characteristics of behavioural assessment:4 categories - Verbal - Environmental - Physical - BehaviouralPrompting:when prompts become less necessary and are gradually withdrawn.Fading- refers to strengthening a behaviour so that the person will continue to perform it. - Occurs when the consequences of a behaviour increase the likelihood that the person will repeat the behaviour.What is reinforcement?- positive - when a pleasant or desirable stimulus is presented as a consequence of a persons performing a behaviour - Negative - when an event which is usually unpleasant or undesirable is removed, avoided or escaped from as a consequence of a persons performing a behaviourPositive and negative reinforcement- Positive punishment involves removing an unpleasant or undesirable consequence - Negative punishment involves removing a pleasant or desirable consequence.Negative reinforcement versus punishment- tangible reinforcers - Social reinforcers - Token reinforcers - Reinforcing activitiesTypes of positive reinforcersHigher probability behaviours whether they are considered enjoyable or not can serve as reinforcers for lower probability behaviours.Premack principle- questioning clients - exposing clients to generalized reinforcers - observing clients routine behavioursIdentifying reinforcersreinforcer sampling - the aim is to hook the client on the generalized reinforcerAlternatives to identifying reinforcers- Continuous versus intermittent reinforcement - Individual versus group contingenciesAdministering reinforcersTherapists use shaping to accelerate target behaviours that a client arely performs, which means there are very few opportunities to reinforce them.Shapingindirectly decelerating undesirable behaviours:Differential reinforcement- Incompatible behaviours - Competing behaviours - Alternative behaviours - Any other behaviours - Low response rates5 types of differential reinforcementthe process of withdrawing or withholding reinforcers.Extinctioninvolves temporarily withdrawing a clients access to generalized reinforcers immediately after the client performs the deceleration target behaviour.Time-out from positive reinforcement:involves removing a valued item or privilege that the client possesses or is entitled to when the client performs a deceleration target behaviourResponse cost- an aversive stimulus is introduced while the client is engaging in the deceleration target behavior, and it is terminated as soon as the client stops performing the behavior.Aversion therapyan action is morally right if, when compared with alternative actions, it produces more benefit than harm.Principle of utility