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Psych 241 - ch 10 & 11
Terms in this set (54)
Systematic tendency to perceive one's own group (the ingroup) more favourably than a group to which one does not belong to (the outgroup)
Generalized belief that links a whole group of people with certain traits or characteristics (e.g., friendliness, intelligence, athleticism, etc.).
Negative attitudes or feelings toward a certain group and its individual members
action or behaviour in favor or against an individual based on their group membership.
A form of racism that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalise
Stereotypes or prejudice considered unconscious or implicit when people express them without awareness and without being able to control their responses
broadly represent mental association between a group and feelings or beliefs.
Implicit prejudice and stereotypes
If measured with Modern Racism Scale - NO
If measured with IAT - YES
Are we Biased?
Picture viewing of people embodying each quadrant activated the mPFC, part of the social brain and mentalizing network, except the disgust pictures. These pics activated the _____ and ______, indicative of a negative, visceral response.
They are not only descriptive, but also prescriptive (i.e. they tell people what they should do or be).
Stereotypes come from roles and behaviors that societal pressures may impose on a particular group.
Social role theory
Competition for material resources can lead to intergroup bias.
when dominant groups become frustrated and displace aggression onto relatively powerless, visible, and disliked outgroups
Competition for scarce resources between groups breeds prejudice, stereotypes, and hostility
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
Paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary criteria and then examine how members of these 'minimal groups' behave toward each other
Minimal Groups Paradigm
Our self concept and self esteem are not only derived from our personal identity and accomplishments, but also from the status and accomplishments of groups to which we belong.
Social Identity Theory (SIT)
a) they are explicitly told that they are classified in an arbitrary way (e.g., coin toss)
b) they are never at a personal advantage regardless of how they divide the points
c) they never meet members of any of the group members
People still show bias (discrimination/prejudice) even if:
In contrast to motive for ingroup favouritism, system justification theory argues for ideological motive to justify the status quo even if it negatively impacts one's own group.
We are motivated to know who we are and how we relate to others - we like to feel relatively certain about things in life.
The classification of people into groups on the basis of various attribes
is adaptive and helpful in processing complex world, however, categorization problematic because it can lead to overestimation of between group differences and underestimation of within group differences
Tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups
Outgroup homogeneity effect
Stereotypes also influence how we communicate, process information and interpret events
Biased Information Processing
Explaining away exceptions to a stereotype by creating a subcategory that differs from the group as a whole
Extent to which one sees hierarchy of groups and desires their ingroup to dominate over others
Social Dominance Orientation
Extent to which one values conventionalism, authoritarian aggression and submission
Expressions of intergroup biases may be influenced by the extent to which one is motivated to control prejudice
Motivation to Control Prejudice
Socialisation refers to process by which people learn the norms, rules, and information of a culture or group.
Research from many parts of the world find that stigmatised groups tend to experience worse health outcomes than advantaged groups or the majority
Negative Health Outcomes
Stigmatised group members often face dilemma of how to attribute experiences they have
the fear of being evaluated by or confirming negative stereotypes about one's group
Values and beliefs are integral to psychological security.
Prejudice often serves specific psychological functions for people.
Established prejudiced views and stereotypes constitute self-perpetuating schemas.
Some people are unaware of their prejudices and their influences.
Stereotypes and biased attitudes are brought to mind quickly and automatically through a reflexive or experiential process
Process 1 (Experiential)
People employ reflective or cognitive processes to regulate or control the degree to which those thoughts and attitudes affect their behavior and judgment.
Process 2 (Rational)
Viewing the world through our own cultural beliefs and thereby judging actions and people based on our own cultures views of right and wrong
a tendecy to view members of a racial outgroup as a threat to ones way of life and to express this view by rejecting social policies seen as benifiting that group
the influence on white americans racial attitudes by two clashing sets of values: a belief in individualism and a belief in egalitarianism
Negatve attitudes or affective reactions associated with with an outgroup, for which the individual has little or no conscious awareness and which can be automatically activated in intergroup encounters
a tendency to assume an associated between two rare occurrences, such as being in a minority group and performing negative actions
the idea that people endorse and freely express stereotypes in part to justify their own negative affective reactions to outgroup
Justification suppression model
the perception that outgroup members lack qualities that are viewed as unique to human beings such as language, rational intelligence, and complex social emotions
the pairing of hostile beliefs about women with benevolent but patronizing beliefs about them
the tendency to view individuals in outgroups as more similar to each other than they really are
Outgroup homogeneity effect
the tendency to mistakenly see objects in the hands of black men as guns
the tendecy to believe that bad actions by outgroup members occur because of their internal dispositions and goof actions by them occur because of the situation, while believing the reverse for ingroup members
Ultimate attribution error
a tendency to describe sterotypic behaviours in abstract terms while describing counterstereotypic behaviours in concrete terms
Linguistic intergroup bias
the tendency for people to estimate that they personally expierence less discrimination than is faced by the average meber of their group
Person-group discrimination discrepency
the process of disinventing in any area in which ones group traditionally has been underrepresented or negatively stereotyped
a model which suggests that targets of bias can employ strategies that deflect discrimination, as long as those methods arent percieved as confrontational
Target empowerment model
the idea that people can offset the negative consequences of being targeted by discrimination by feeling a strong sense of identification with their stigmaitized group
Rejection identification theory
a phenomenon whereby members of stigmatized groups often can be uncertain about whether negative experiences are based on their actions and abilities or are the result of prejudice
a common problem or shared goal that groups work together to solve or achieve
a worldview that groups identities are ignored and people are judged solely on their individual merits, thereby avoiding any judgement based on group membership
a worldview that different cultural identities and viewpoints are acknowledged and appreciated
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