PSYC-2011: Chapters 8-13 Textbook Practice Quiz

over the preschool years, muscle develops, and more cartilage turns to
- teeth
- fat
- muscle
- bone
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Terms in this set (80)
which of the following does not happen to the brain as a child matures?
- Myelinization of other areas of the brain, such as those involved in perception, motor skills, and memory, leads to better capacity in terms of memory and perceptual-motor coordination
- Stronger connectivity between synapses has been implicated in better working memory-related brain activity in childhood
- Myelinization stops working in the corpus callosum during the preschool years.
- The connective tissues on neurons that are understimulated are "pruned" back, and the pruning continues through the preschool years and again in adolescence
Which of the following guidelines do experts not recommend for parents to encourage children to be more open-minded about food?
- When possible, allow children to pick among different healthy foods.
- Allow children to eat foods in any order they want.
- Force children to eat new foods.
- Offer children new foods one at a time and in small amounts.
Jordan's Principle addresses jurisdictional disputes for ___________. - children with serious health issues - First Nations children - children living in poverty - children with ADHDFirst Nations childrenWhich of the following statements about childhood obesity is not true? - Prevalence rates for childhood obesity in Canada vary depending on the definition of obesity used as well as the assessment measures. - Obesity rates are not at all linked to social class. - Regional differences exist in obesity rates, with children in Atlantic Canada being more than twice as likely to be obese as those on the Prairies. - A significant risk for familial obesity exists in Canada and genetic factors contribute to obesity rates for Canadian families.Obesity rates are not at all linked to social class.The average 2-year-old boy or girl is about ______ centimetres tall and weighs about ____ kilograms. - 85; 13 - 85; 20 - 95; 17 - 95; 1o85; 13Jumping is an example of a(n) ___________ motor skill. - gross - advanced - fine - lateralizedgrossIndigenous children experience obesity at ____ the rate of non-Indigenous Canadian children, and they are ____ times more likely to have problems with household food insecurity. - ten times; two - three times; four - five times; seven - twice; threetwice; threeAll of the following are recommended as developmentally appropriate practices in early childhood education except _________________________. - establishing reciprocal relationships - assessing children's learning - creating a caring community - teaching by repetitionteaching by repetitionWhich of the following is a false statement about the influence of television on children? - Youngsters who watch television shows that emphasize prosocial behaviour, such as Mr. Dress-Up, are more likely to behave prosocially. - Some researchers have found evidence for connections between early media exposure and attentional problems in children. - The impact of viewing prosocial television programs is much greater than the impact of viewing televised violence. - Some recent research points to the fact that 1-year-olds never perceive or react to negative emotion presented in televised form.Some recent research points to the fact that 1-year-olds never perceive or react to negative emotion presented in televised form.Which of the following is not one of the National Association for the Education of Young Children's recommendations for early childhood education practices? - create a caring community of learners - teach to enhance development and learning - avoid assessment of children's learning and development - establish reciprocal relationships with familiesavoid assessment of children's learning and developmentFive-year-old Gabrielle has watched Sesame Street regularly since she was 3 years old. Five-year-old Francesca has watched Sesame Street only rarely. You would expect to find - that Gabrielle has a larger vocabulary than Francesca. - that Francesca is better than Gabrielle at recognizing letters and numbers. - that Francesca will adjust to school more readily than Gabrielle. - no differences between Francesca and Gabrielle in terms of their academic skills or adjustment to school.that Gabrielle has a larger vocabulary than Francesca.Which of the following is not one of the factors listed in the best practices handbook for providing early childhood programs to Indigenous children? - Indigenous worldview - encouraging complete independence from Elders - participation in Indigenous-led research - respectful and caring relationship with environmentencouraging complete independence from EldersParents treat sons ____________ daughters for gender-related behaviours; fathers tend to respond based on _____________, and a mother will respond based on _____________. - similarly to; stereotypes; knowledge of the individual child - similarly to; knowledge of the individual child; stereotypes - differently from; stereotypes; knowledge of the individual child - differently from; knowledge of the child; stereotypesdifferently from; stereotypes; knowledge of the individual childThe social-learning perspective in gender-related behaviour shows all of the following statements to be true except which one? - Parents tend to interact equally with sons and daughters. - Daughters are encouraged to play with dolls, dress up, or help adults. - Parents treat sons and daughters similarly for gender-related behaviour. - Mothers and fathers are equally warm to their sons and daughters.Parents treat sons and daughters similarly for gender-related behaviour.A person's judgment and feelings about his or her own worth are called ______________. - self-concept - self-esteem - self-recognition - self-awarenessself-esteemObservational learning can produce ______________, or learning what should not be done. - counterimitation - make-believe play - constricting - gender consistencycounterimitationDavid's dad often misses his soccer games, but he expects David to finish his chores in a timely manner. David is often grounded when he does not do well in school. David's father is most likely a(n) _______________________ parent. - uninvolved - authoritarian - permissive - authoritativeauthoritarianA family's particular culture has an impact on how children are raised and how the family interacts with the larger social system in which they live. Which of the following is a false statement? - According to Statistics Canada, about 60 percent of Indigenous children in Canada who are between the ages of 0 and 4 years of age live in a two-parent family. - According to Statistics Canada, about 16.7 percent of Indigenous children in Canada live with one or more grandparents. - Although Indigenous children account for 15 percent of all children in Canada between the ages of 0 and 4, they represent approximately four-fifths of all foster children in that particular age group. - Indigenous families have been affected not only by residential schools but also by urbanization, changes in the education system, and other social dynamics.Although Indigenous children account for 15 percent of all children in Canada between the ages of 0 and 4, they represent approximately four-fifths of all foster children in that particular age group.In Farver and Shin's 1997 study of make-believe play among European-American and Korean-American preschoolers, they found all of the following statements to be true except that ______________. - European-American children were more polite and more likely to strive for harmony. - adventure and fantasy were favourite themes for European-American youngsters. - family roles and everyday activities were favourites of the Korean-American children. - the two groups of children differed in the themes of their make-believe play.European-American children were more polite and more likely to strive for harmony.Unprovoked aggression, which has the single goal of gaining power over another through social, verbal, or physical harassment, is called ______________. - make-believe - bullying - respect - conflictbullyingThe factors that contribute to the positive quality of sibling relationships include all except _______________________. - children's temperament - children's gender - parent's having "favourites" - children's ageparents having "favourites"The ability to hold off immediate satisfaction in order to obtain a larger reward or more preferable outcome later is known as _______________. - improving self-control - delayed gratification - immediate gratification - social conventionsdelayed gratificationOne classic study identified five specific styles of grandparenting (Neugarten & Weinstein, 1964). Which of the following is a false statement? - Formal grandparents express strong interest in the grandchild but maintain a hands-off attitude toward child-rearing. - Surrogate-parent grandparents assume many of the normal roles and responsibilities of a parent. - Fun-seeking grandparents see themselves as a secondary source of fun for their grandchildren but avoid too much fun in their interactions. - Distant grandparents have little contact with grandchildren, except as part of holidays or other family celebrations.Fun-seeking grandparents see themselves as a secondary source of fun for their grandchildren but avoid too much fun in their interactions.In Canada, 0.8 percent of couples self-identified on the 2011 Census as being gay, in comparison with ______ percent who identified themselves as heterosexual. - 69.8 - 47.6 - 15.4 - 99.299.2Personality characteristics that reflect active involvement with and influence over the environment and that are stereotypically associated with ______ are called __________ traits. - men; instrumental - men; expressive - women; instrumental - women; expressivemen; instrumentalWhich of the following is not a way that parents can positively influence children's behaviour? - parenting in an authoritarian manner - giving feedback - modelling behaviour they value - direct instructionparenting in an authoritarian mannerMake-believe play not only is entertaining for children, but it also seems to promote cognitive development. Which of the following is a false completion to the following statement? Children who spend much time in make-believe play tend to be more advanced in ______________. - language - physicality - reasoning - memoryphysicalityIn Canada, children of _____ social class have ___________ rates of obesity. - higher; increased - lower; decreased - higher; decreased - middle; decreasedhigher; decreasedRegarding Indigenous youth, _______ has been related in particular to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, and both obesity and diabetes have become notable problems for Indigenous people in Canada. - height - relationships with others - obesity - eating vegatablesobesityWhich of the following studies indicates a strong influence of genes on obesity? - Children's level of physical activity is linked to the parents' activity level. - Adopted children have a more similar weight to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents. - Clinically hyperactive children do not have a lower risk for obesity than their siblings. - Basal metabolic rate studies show that the speed at which the body burns calories influences weight gain.Adopted children have a more similar weight to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents.Childhood obesity can be caused or worsened by all of the following except ______________. - poor eating habits - a sedentary lifestyle - an academic-oriented lifestyle - hereditaryan academic-oriented lifestyleWhat causes the incidence of otitis to be reduced during middle childhood? - the improvement in the immune system of children as they grow - the change in shape and size of the Eustachian tube - the increase in length of the auditory canal - removal of the tonsils in children who suffer from chronic ear infectionsthe change in shape and size of the Eustachian tubeChildren start to lose primary teeth at ___________ years of age. - 4-5 - 2-3 - 3-4 - 5-65-6Which of the following choices is not one of the findings of the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute? - Schools with lower-income families are less likely to pay for costs associated with sports than other schools. - The majority of schools use physical education specialists to teach physical education. - Only 16 percent of Canadian schools offer physical education classes on a daily basis. - Children spend 20 percent of their time in physical education classes being inactive.The majority of schools use physical education specialists to teach physical education.Girls excel in gross-motor skills requiring flexibility and ___________. - balance - endurance - strength - creativitybalanceThe leading cause of injury in young people under the age of 20 is ____________. - being struck by an object - drowning - motor vehicle collisions - unintentional fallsunintentional fallsChildren's greater motor skill means they are able to participate in _____________. - sports - school - reading - language drillssportsBeing active physically has many benefits for children, including all of the following except which one? - Physical activity promotes visual health. - Physical activity helps promote growth of muscles and bone. - Physical activity promotes cardiovascular health. - Physical activity can help establish a lifelong pattern of exercise.Physical activity promotes visual health.Parents can prevent accidents and injuries by all of the following methods, except _____________________. - realistically assessing the child's skills - modelling safe behaviour by wearing appropriate gear in sports and activities - insisting that children wear seat belts and helmets - teaching children over the age of 12 years to look both ways before crossing a streetteaching children over the age of 12 years to look both ways before crossing a streetMost children gain about _____ kilograms per year in middle childhood. - 3.5 - 2 - 6 - 1.53.5 (7.7 pounds)During the school years, many children skip breakfast because they are too rushed in the morning. Breakfast should provide about one-quarter to a third of daily calories and should be eaten within _______ hours of getting up in the morning - 3 - 2 - 4 - 62It is not until children are approximately _________ years old that they will look consistently both ways before crossing a busy street. - 6 or 7 - 7 or 8 - 9 or 10 - 11 or 129 or 10Asked by his grandpa to describe a day at summer camp, Hector explained that the day began with breakfast, followed by two activity periods. Lunch came next, then a rest period, and two more activity periods ... and so on. Hector's response is an example of ___________. - reversibility - scripts - strategies - knowledgescriptsIn Piaget's view, ______________ are organized, formal, logical mental processes that a person demonstrates during cognitive development. - centres - concretes - orders - operationsoperationsWhich of the following subtheories is not a part of Sternberg's triarchic theory of successful intelligence? - experiential subtheory - contextual subtheory - cognitive subtheory - componential subtheorycognitive subtheoryHierarchical theories of intelligence __________________________. - include only general factors of intelligence - include both general and specific factors of intelligence - are based on research and theories of cognitive development - include only specific factors of intelligenceinclude both general and specific factors of intelligenceHoward Gardner's theory of intelligence ________________________. - suggests there is only one intelligence - does not address the issue of the development of intelligence - suggests that schools should promote only spatial and logical-mathematical intelligences - currently has eight distinct intelligencescurrently has eight distinct intelligencesHeredity influences developmental profiles for _______________. - psychometric testing - multiple intelligences - IQ scores - dynamic testingIQ scoresGirls tend to excel in _________, and boys tend to excel in ____________________________. - mathematical skills; verbal and spatial skills v- erbal skills; mathematical and spatial skills - spatial skills; mathematical skills - spatial skills; verbal skillsverbal skills; mathematical and spatial skillsSeven-year-old Elaine is of average intelligence for her age. What would her IQ score be? - 70 - 50 - 170 - 100100_______________ is the process of identifying a unique pattern of letters. - word recognition - rhyming - phonological awareness - number recognitionword recognitionAll of the following factors contribute to improved writing with age except ______________. - better organization - greater skill in revising - greater knowledge - a larger braina larger brainWhich of the following is false? Students tend to learn the most when teachers - devalue tutoring. - manage the classroom effectively so they can devote most of their time to instruction. - believe they are responsible for their students' learning and that their students will learn when taught well. - emphasize mastery of topics.devaluate tutoringResearchers have identified several factors associated with success in school. Which of the following statements does not apply? - The school climate is safe and nurturing. - Staff and students alike understand that academic excellence is the primary goal of the school and of every student in the school. - Parents are not involved in the workings of the school. - Progress of students, teachers, and programs is monitored.Parents are not involved in the workings of the school.Which of the following is true about concrete operational children? - They are able to reverse their thinking. - They show centration in their thinking. - They are egocentric. - They confuse appearances with reality.they are able to reverse their thinkingKyoung Lae has practiced his multiplication tables so many times that he doesn't have to spend time thinking about the answers any longer; the answers pop into his mind without any effort. According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of successful intelligence, this is referred to as - conflictual subtheory. - experiential subtheory. - contextual subtheory. - componential subtheory.experiential subtheory_____________ involves making adaptations to the classroom environment and teaching methods to accommodate children's personal strengths, weaknesses, and preferred ways of learning. - Dynamic testing - Response to intervention - Culture-fair intelligence tests - Differentiated instructiondifferentiated instructionWhich of the following is not a source of self-esteem? - when families live in harmony and parents nurture children - when parents are affectionate toward children and involved with them - when parents establish strict rules and stick to them without discussion - when children favourably compare themselves to other childrenwhen parents establish strict rules and stick to them without discussionThe Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) is designed to evaluate self-worth in children _____ years of age and older across five domains. - 12 - 10 - 8 - 68According to the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) , how popular or accepted the child feels in social interactions with peers belongs to the domain called ________________. - behavioural acceptance - athletic competence - scholastic competence - social acceptancesocial acceptanceDuring which stage of development is prejudice the lowest? - Prejudice tends to remain stable over - childhood and adolescence. adolescence - preschool years - elementary-school yearselementary-school yearsWhen children are __________, they do less well in school, have lower self-esteem, and are more likely to have behavioural problems. - popular - controversial - rejected - prosocialrejectedWhich of the following factors is not a contributing factor to children's prosocial behaviour? - feelings of competence - high cost of altruism - empathy - rewardhigh cost of altruismAn ________________ orientation is one in which individuals consider the injured child's perspective and how their own actions will make the child feel. - allocentric - empathetic - altruistic - idiocentricempathetic__________ children's self-esteem makes them _______ tolerant of personal attacks. - increasing; less - increasing; just as - decreasing; more - decreasing; lessincreasing; lessMaltreated children frequently exhibit both internalizing and externalizing behaviour. Internalizing problems might include all of the following except - physical aggression - depression - suicidal ideation - anxietyphysical aggressionAggressive boys often respond aggressively because they _______________________. - are not skilled at regulating their emotions - are not skilled at responding to a social stimulus - have higher levels of the hormone testosterone than other boys - are not skilled at interpreting other people's intentionsare not skilled at interpreting other people's intentionsRegarding the impact of divorce on children, who is least affected? - children prone to interpret events negatively - school-age children and adolescents - children who are temperamentally emotional - preschool childrenpreschool childrenWhen a remarriage results in children from both families coming to live together, it is called a __________ family. - relative - partnered - meta - blendedblended________ people tend to emphasize interdependence, affiliation, and co-operation with groups they belong to more than their own personal goals. - idiocentric - egocentric - ethnocentric - allocentricallocentricPopular and rejected children can be found in every classroom and neighbourhood. In fact, studies of popularity (Marks, 2017; Newcomb, Bukowski, & Pattee, 1993) reveal that most children can be placed in one of five categories. Which one of the following is not one of those categories? - popular - expected - rejected - controversialexpectedWhich of the following parental behaviours can result in children having less empathy and prosocial interactions with others? - allowing for developmentally appropriate levels of interpersonal risk - warmth - helicopter parenting - allowing children to work out their own problems in keeping with their developmental levelhelicopter parenting