Terms in this set (272)
Gustav Fechner believed in a __________ between ___________ and __________. He was the first to suggest.... Who quoted Fechner multiple times in their work?threshold; unconscious; conscious ... the mind is analogous to an iceberg; large portion was below the surface. FreudWhat popular late-1800s book made people more willing to accept the idea of conscious vs. unconscious? Who wrote this book?"Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Robert Luis StevensonWhat did Greek philosophers think caused mental illness? How did they treat it?They thought it arose from disordered thought processes. They used persuasive healing powers of words.What did Christianity (crusades era) think caused mental illness? How did they treat it?They thought it arose from evil spirits. They treated mental illness with severe punishment.In the 1800s, what did people think caused mental illness? How did they treat it?It was viewed as an irrational behaviour. Treated by institutionalizing people.Freud's work made it much more acceptable to...... treat mental illnesses.______________ and ____________ were involved in treating mental illness in the 1800s.Philippe Pinel; Dorothea DixPhilippe Pinel was the first person to take ___________ seriously. He did... (3)treating people with mental illness 1. Released patients from chains 2. Listened to them 3. Took case-histories on cure-rates, found that listening helped with cure-ratesDorothea Dix was ________ and lived with ________. She was inspired by ________. She advocated for... She was influential in...religious; depression; Pinel ... humanitarian treatment of the mentally ill ... improving conditions for wounded Union officers during the Civil WarWhat did Benjamin Rush he invent to treat mental illness? (3)Rotating chair (to spin the illness out of you), Ice water Tranquilizer chair (to immobilize you)____________ was the first psychiatrist to practice in the US. He created the first ________. He thought mental illness was caused by _________. He proposed ______________ as a solution.Benjamin Rush; hospital for those with mental illness too much or too little blood; drain or pump in more bloodWhat were the two "camps" of psychiatrists? What did they each propose?Somatic: mental illness has a physical cause (ex. brain lesions, too much blood) Psychic: emotional/psychological explanations for mental illnessWhich camp of psychiatry did more scientists grow to support? What did this open the door for?Support for Psychic camp. This opened the door for more psychological causes of mental illness to be talked about.Where did the Emmanuel Movement come from?A branch of the Emmanuel Church in BostonWho was primarily involved with the Emmanuel Movement? What did this person offer? What methods did they rely on?Elwood Worcester Offered talk therapy sessions for the mentally ill. He relied heavily on moral authority and power of suggestion.Elwood Worcester did his PhD with _________. He focused on ________ psychology.Wundt; appliedWho did the word mesmerize come from? What is this person called?Franz Anton Mesmer; Father of HypnosisFranz Anton Mesmer argued that humans have a _________.magnetic fieldFranz Anton Mesmer thought humans' magnetic field could be manipulated through __________. He thought you could cure ___________ by _______________.the use of magnets; nervous disorders; restoring equilibriumWhy has hypnosis remained popular in the US?Placebo effectWho was the world's most well-known and respected neuropsychologist? What method did he use to treat people? What was his specialty?Jean Martin Charcot Hypnosis HysteriaTogether, _________ and __________ advocated that ____________ was psychological in nature.Jean Martin Charcot; Pierre Janet; hysteriaBecause of Jean Martin Charcot, what became the norm in medicine to treat psychological issues? What term became popular in psychotherapy?hypnosis psychotherapyWho made the word psychopathy popular?Jean Martin CharcotWho was inspired by Darwin's evolutionary theory? What do Darwin's writings emphasize? (4)Freud SHUD 1. Unconscious mental processes and conflicts 2. Significance of dreams 3. Hidden symbolism of certain behaviours 4. Importance of sexual arousalWho's theory influenced Darwin? What was this theory?Freud's theory of child developmentHow did the 1800s Vienna zeitgeist respond to sexuality? Who studied this?More permissive and open than North America SexologistsSexologists studied __________ and the __________.the human sexual response; libido.Catharsis is the process of... It originated with ________ but became popular in ___________. By 1890, there were ______ publications about it.... reducing or eliminating a complex by recalling it to conscious awareness, and allowing it to be expressed. Aristotle; Germany; 140Dreaming was talked about by the following 4 people before Freud: *Describe what they talked about*WKCC Wundt: how external stimuli invaded consciousness during sleep Charcot: trauma from hysteria is revealed in dreams Krafft-Ebbing: dreams show unconscious sexual wishes Calkins: analyzed the content of dreamsFreud took the various existing theories about dreams and turned them into a coherent whole, and called this _________.psychoanalysisWhat did ________ Gay say about Freud?Peter "Freud is Inescapable"Freud was born in ________, which is now called the ________. Early on, his family moved to _______.Morovia; Czech Republic; ViennaFreud's father was a ___________. His father was not very _______ but he was _______. Freud was the _______ child of _______ total.Wool merchant; religious; strict oldest; 8How did Freud's mother feel about him?He was her favourite childFreud could read _______ as a child. He spoke ______ languages.Shakespeare; 7Freud first went to University at the University of _________. He studied _________, but wanted to be a ___________.Vienna; medicine; scientistWhy did Freud study medicine at first?Jewish students were only allowed to study law or medicineWhile at University of Vienna, Freud studied ___________ with _________. They researched the _________.neurology; Ernst Brucke reproductive system of eelsWhy did Freud work as a doctor?To pay for his weddingFreud's wife's name was __________. They had _______ children. The oldest was ________.Martha Bernays; 6; Anna FreudHow was Freud introduced to psychology?He trained with Jean Martin Charcot at the hospital in Paris (as a medicine student). They looked at hysteria patients, and Freud became interested in psychology.Freud was well-respected as a ___________ and _________.diagnostician; neuroanatomistWho was Freud's most famous patient? What did people today think the patient's mental health problems were caused by? Who did he learn about them from?Anna O (although Freud didn't actually ever meet her) "Conversion disorders" and other unspecified mental illness Josef BreuerFreud wrote ________, _________ and ____________."Studies on Hysteria" "Interpretation of Dreams" "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality"Why did Freud leave Austria?It was taken over by the NazisWhen, where, and how did Freud die?London, 1939 He died by euthanasia after suffering from mouth and jaw cancer.What made it so easy for Freud to use cocaine? When did he first try it? Freud thought cocaine was a ___________ that could treat _________ and __________.It was legal and easy to find In University miracle drug; depression; physical ailmentsCarl Koller was a colleague of _________. He became famous after discovering...Freud anaesthetic properties of cocaine, which was then used for numbing in surgeryWho discovered the anaesthetic properties of cocaine?Carl KollerWhat did Freud do that increased public cocaine use?He published a paper on its benefits (nobody knew it was addictive)Freud was a lifelong _______ smoker. How many did he smoke per day? What effect did he think it had on his health?cigar; 20 He knew it was bad for his health, but he couldn't quit.________ and ________ were both students of Ernst Brucke at University of _________.Freud; Josef Breuer; ViennaJosef Breuer discovered that _____________ influence _________. He is credited for creating _________.semicircular canals; balance psychoanalysisHysteria is when a patient has ______________ but no clear _________. Some people believed the cause was ________. Freud believed the symptoms were rooted in the ___________.physical symptoms; physical cause neurological unconsciousAnna O's real name was _______. What were her symptoms? (3)Bertha Pappenheim paralysis in both legs and one arm speech disturbances dissociative statesWhen did Anna O's symptoms first appear? What did Breuer attempt to do to treat her? He found that her ________ would manifest as ________.When she was keeping a vigil for her dying father Breuer hypnotized her, and attempted to trace each symptom to an individual event of her past. feelings; symptomsAnna O began referring to Breuer's treatment as ____________.the talking cureAnna O started to _________ her feelings from __________ onto _________.transfer (transference); her father; BreuerWhat did Breuer do when Anna started transferring? What happened to Anna? (5)He ceased their sessions. FARNS 1. Anna experienced a relapse and was institutionalized. 2. She became addicted to morphine to deal with physical pain. 3. She recovered and became a social worker. 4. She was a feminist and published stories on women's rights 5. She died after being interrogated by NazisFreud and Breuer published ___________. This was inspired by _________________ and included _____________."Studies on Hysteria" Breuer's descriptions to Freud of Anna O; case studies, including Anna O'sWhat ended Freud and Breuer's friendship?Freud's insistence that sex was the cause of neurotic behaviour (Breuer disagreed)What was the formal beginning of psychoanalysis?The publication of "Studies on Hysteria"Who _____________ told ___________ that ________ was the underlying cause of hysteria. Who said "In this sort of case it's always a question of the genitals- always, always, always"Charcot; Freud; sex CharcotRudolph Chrobak worked as a _________ and lived in _________.gynecologist; ViennaWhat patient(s) did Rudolph Chrobak work with? Who suggested the cause of his patients' problems?He worked with women with anxiety. Freud suggested this problem was because the women weren't having sex with their husbands.Freud adopted the position that ______ played an important role in mental health issues. Whose actions inspired this? (2)sex Charcot's use of hypnosis to treat hysteria Breuer's use of hypnosis and catharsis to treat patientsWhy did Freud stop using hypnosis? What did he start using instead?He found it difficult to hypnotize neurotic patients. He started using free association instead.Freud considered free association to be a form of ____________. Free association is...catharsis through talking A therapeutic technique where the patient says whatever comes to mind.Catharsis is a type of...defense mechanismWho said: "the most immediate and, for practical purposes, the most significant causes of neurotic illnesses are to be found in factors arising from the sexual life"FreudChildhood seduction theory This was also called the ____________.Freud's theory that most female patients' neurotic illnesses are because they had traumatic childhood sexual experiences, typically involving family members. Aetiology of HysteriaWhy was Freud's childhood seduction theory so controversial?He over-generalized the extent to which child sexual abuse occurred.The "Aetiology of Hysteria" was proposed by the ________. It argues that ________. Later, it was revised to suggest that ___________.Viennese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology; symptoms of hysteria were a result of sexual abuse. The experiences were not real; they had not actually happened.___________ called the Aetiology of Hysteria a ____________.Krafft-Ebbing; scientific fairytaleDraw Freud's Dynamic Model.Freud's ____________ model explains the various states of consciousness.DynamicConscious system involves... (1) Preconscious system involves.. (1) Unconscious system involves... (1)1. All the thoughts we are aware of 2. All the thoughts we are not presently aware of, but could become aware of (ex. a previous memory, a phone number) 3. Thoughts we are not aware of.The Unconscious system does not have access to _________.the conscious systemWhat happens to repressed thoughts? (2)They are censored and do not have access to the preconscious. BUT, they can move from the unconscious to the preconscious through dreams.Dreams can represent...unconscious desiresWhat type of belief did Freud have? What did this mean?Positivist belief; everything has a causeFreud could not analyze himself using _________, so he turned to __________.free association; dream analysisdream analysis is a ______________ technique involving ___________.psychotherapeutic; the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflictWhat did Freud find when analyzing his own dreams? (2)1. He was hostile towards his own father 2. He had incestuous dreamsWhat was the basis for many of Freud's theories? Who was his "most important patient for me"Exploration of his own unconscious HimselfFreud wrote ______________ about dream analysis. This was read by _________. The book described ___________. The dominant theme was ________. Following it's publication, __________ became a standard method in psychoanalysis."Interpretation of Dreams"; Carl Jung 40 of Freud's own dreams; ambition dream analysisDream analysis involved ________(3) and __________ (4) content.Manifest content: -surface level -What the dream seemed to be about -What is experienced by the dreamer Latent content: -deeper level -what the dream is truly about -discovered through analysis by the analyst -can involve wish fulfillmentDream work involves... (2)1. An attempt to help a patient understand the latent content of a dream 2. Removing the "disguise" of the manifest contentCondensation Displacement - give an exampleC: an element of a dream that symbolizes several things in a person's life D: an anxiety-producing topic is replaced by a symbol (ex. train tunnel = sex)Freudian slip is _________. This is a way that ____________ sometimes gets out. It happens when...an act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxieties latent unconscious content ... unconscious ideas struggling for expression affect our thoughts and actions.Who said "we've had some sex, errr, setbacks"Geroge H.W. BushWhich of Freud's books talked about the Freudian Slip?"The psychopathology of Everyday Life"Freud participated in the _________ conference. His concept of ________ was well-received by the American public.Clark University; unconsciousWhat did Freud say about America?It was a "gigantic mistake" Bad food, lack of toilets, no mannersWhat was the goal of psychoanalysis therapy? What was its' primary concern?To wean patients from a childlike dependence on the therapist, and help them assume the adult role in their lives. To explain the dynamics of human behaviourFreud thought ________ was the ideal method for talk therapy.psychoanalysisWhat are is a main problem Free Association presents?Free association reaches a point where the patient stops providing useful information. Resistance: blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories during free associationWhy did Freud think Resistance happens during free association? What did he think the analyst needed to do?Repression: people ejected ideas, memories, and desires from the conscious to the unconscious. The analyst must help the analysand bring those things back to the conscious.The analyst treats the ________.analysandFreud's personality theory centred around __________.instinctsInstincts What types of instincts are there?Freud: The motivating forces of personality (not inherited instincts). Life instinct (Eros) Libido Death instinct (Thanatos)Life Instinct (2) What needs does it fulfill? (4)Eros The drive for ensuring survival of the individual and the species by satisfying the needs for: food, water, air, and sex.Libido (1) What does it drive?The psychic energy that drives a person toward pleasure Drives the idDeath instinct (3) What happens when it is directed inward vs. outward? (2)Thanatos Leads to a tendency to "tear things down" Unconscious drive towards decay, destruction, aggression Directed inward= suicide Directed outward= aggressionAccording to Freud, ________ and _________ are divided in the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.recall; mental lifeThe three structural components of personality are the: (3) They are intertwined in the: (3) This was a later revision of Freud's ___________.Id, Ego, Superego Conscious, preconscious, unconscious conscious-unconscious dynamicDraw Freud's Levels of Personality IcebergWhat instinct did Adler not like?Death InstinctFreud: Science (6)Psychoanalysis Dream analysis Free association Theory of Personality Instincts Defense mechanismsThe Id (2)The Dark and Inaccessible part of our personality. UnreasonableWho is driven by the Id? What principles does it involve? What energy influences it?Babies Pleasure Principle: reducing tension through seeking pleasure and reducing pain. Libido energy: creates an uncomfortable state of tensionThe Ego (2)The Mediator (referee) between the Id and the Superego The "thinking level" of personalityWhat is the ego keenly aware of? What principle does it involve? What happens when the ego doesn't maintain balance? A stressed out ego leads to...Reality and the expectations of society Reality Principle: postpones the Id's gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet When it doesn't maintain balance, you develop mental illness. ... anxietyWhat is an example of the Id? Ego? Superego?Id- Hunger drives you to seek out food to reduce that tension Ego- you order an appetizer at a restaurant to satisfy the Id enough, but you don't eat a full meal yet because it's not polite Superego- tells you not to wait for others to arrive to be politeSuperego (2)"Above-I": The representation of morality UnreasonableThe superego develops... It attempts to...... early on in life via rewards and punishment from parents. ... inhibit the IdAccording to Freud, punished behaviours... Rewarded behaviours...... become part of the Superego ... become part of the EgoAccording to Freud, there is a constant struggle for balance between...The Id, Ego, and SuperegoAccording to Freud, what causes anxiety? What IS anxiety?a stressed-out ego Anxiety is a warning that the ego is being threatenedIf the superego was totally in control, you would be... If the Id was totally in control, you would be...... depressed ... a terrible personDefense Mechanismsbehaviours that represent unconscious denials or distortions of reality but which are adapted to protect the ego against anxietyWhich are Freud's most accurate theories?Defense mechanisms Anxiety as a warning systemTypes of defence mechanisms (8)DDRRRRPS Denial: denying the existence of a threat or trauma Displacement: shifting impulses from an unavailable object to an available one Projection: attributing a disturbing impulse to someone instead of yourself Rationalization: reinterpreting behaviour to make it more acceptable or less threatening Reaction Formation: expressing an Id impulse that is the opposite of the impulse actually driving the person Regression: retreating to an earlier, less frustrating period of life and displaying childish/dependence behaviours Repression: burying the existence of something that is causing anxiety Sublimation: diverting the Id impulses into energy that is more socially acceptableWhat is the most common defence mechanismrepressionWho later added more to the list of defense mechanisms?Anna FreudFreud's Stage theory was called....The Psychosexual stages of personality developmentPsychosexual stage theory centres on...Freud Development of stages of childhood centred on erogenous zonesIn Psychosexual stage theory, children derive pleasure from...... normal caregiving activitiesOedipus complexYou are jealous of the opposite sex parentPsychosexual Stages: Stages Source of Pleasure Psychological Theme Adult CharacterHow was Freud influenced by mechanistic ideas? What did he believe in instead?He thought there was no free will- everything happens for a reason. He believed in determinism.Initially, Freud wanted to create a _________.scientific psychologyWhat and how did psychologists criticize psychoanalysis? (5)VIP MS 1. Argued it was inferior to experimentation 2. Refused to publish articles 3. Worried Freud was messing up the idea of psychology as a science 4. Lacks validity/generalizability 5. Freud may have used suggestion to implant seduction memoriesDo people benefit from psychoanalysis?They can, yes, but likely it's just from talking your problems out.When was psychoanalysis popular?1930s-1940sSupport for Freud's theories: (4)CORD 1. Characteristics of Oral and Anal personality types 2. Castration Anxiety 3. Dreams reflect Emotional states 4. Rivalry of the father in Oedipus complexNo Support for Freud's theories: (5)WIPOS 1. Symbolism of dreams 2. Oedipus complex and male identification of father 3. Women's issues with body image 4. Identity and superego 5. Personality formation by age 5Positive influence of psychoanalysis (1)Let psychology revise thinking on mental illness, more normal to get help for mental illnessPsychoanalysis is based on an ______________ appearance of ________.intuitive; plausibilityThe umbrella term that Freud and others' analysts' theories fit under is called _________Psychodynamic theoristsWho are the 7 main psychodynamic theorists?MAAACCK Anna Freud Melanie Klein Karen Horney Carl Jung Alfred Adler Abraham Maslow Carl RogersNeo-Freudians argue for a ________ psychology. They believe... (3)ego psychology 1. The ego is independent of the Id 2. The ego is free from the conflict produced when Id impulses arise 3. There should be less emphasis on biological forces of personalityAnna Freud is Freud's ________ child of ______. She was born in the same year as ________. How did Freud feel about her?youngest; 6; "Studies on Hysteria" was published Freud did not like her at first, then he was ambivalent towards her when she started to study psychoanalysis, but grew to like her when she followed in his footsteps.How old was Anna Freud when she started attending the Vienna _____________ Society meetings? How old was she when she started practicing psychoanalysis?14; Psychoanalytic 24Anna Freud developed a long-term "platonic" relationship with...an American heiressAnna Freud dedicated her career to...the treatment of emotionally troubled childrenChild Analysis was started by _________. It involved __________. It took _______ and _______ into account. Its innovations included ______________ and ____________.Anna Freud; psychoanalytic therapy with children relative immaturity; level of verbal skills use of play materials; observation of the child in the home settingLike Piaget, Anna Freud recognized...that kids are not just mini-adultsAnna Freud established a ...treatment and psychoanalytic training centreMelanie Klein: ScienceObject Relations TheoryObject Relations Theory "Object" here, refers to... It argued that...Melanie Klein: the theory focused on interpersonal relationships with instinct-satisfying objects "Object" refers to any person, object, or activity that can satisfy an instinct. Argued that the child needs to break free from the primary object (the mother) in order to establish a strong sense of self and to develop relations with other objects (people)According to Object Relations Theory, the primary object is the _______ and other objects are _______.mother; peopleWho was inspired by Object Relations Theory?Carl RogersCarl Jung was born in _________. His father was __________ and his mother was ________. To cope with this, Jung...Switzerland; angry; mentally ill. ... turned "inward" and focused on dreams and fantasies.How did Carl Jung's decide what University Major to take? He studied ________ at University of _________. Later, he got a job as a __________ working under _________.He dreamt about it medicine; Basel psychiatrist; Eugen BleulerCarl Jung married _________. She was very ______, which allowed him to ___________. As parents, they were ________.Emma Rauschenbach; rich; write and practice at home strictCarl Jung first became aware of Freud when...he read "the Interpretation of Dreams"Who had an infamous relationship?Carl Jung and Sigmund FreudCarl Jung was called the... (2)"Crown Prince" and "heir apparent" of PsychoanalysisJung and Freud started to disagree when... (3)1. Jung found Freud's techniques ineffective in his already-established practice 2. Jung began to disagree with Freud on the sexual basis for mental illness 3. Jung wouldn't do whatever Freud wanted when he was president of the International Psychoanalytic AssociationSabina Spielrein was... (2) How did she die?Carl Jung's first patient who became a psychoanalyst Carl Jung had an affair with her Murdered by Nazis in RussiaSabina Spielrein studied with _________ and was _________'s analystFreud; PiagetWhat is Analytical Psychology?Jung's version of psychoanalysisHow is analytical psychology different from psychoanalysis?Analytical psychology... GLOPS -no oedipus complex -sex plays a SMALL role in human motivation -Libido is a generalized life energy of which sex is only a small part -Personality can change after age 5 -People are shaped by their goals and hopesJung's Unconscious involves...2 levels of the unconscious mindWhat are Jung's 2 levels of the unconscious mind? (3+2)Personal unconscious: -reservoir of material that once was conscious but has since been forgotten or suppressed -similar to Freud's "unconscious" -Some material can be retrieved, some cannot Collective unconscious: -deepest level of the psyche which contains inherited experiences of human and pre-human species (ancestral memories) -common experiences of humanity leading back millions of yearsCarl Jung: ScienceAnalytical Psychology 2 levels of the Unconscious Mind Archetypes Psychological typesWhat is Jung's most controversial theory?collective unconsciousArchetypes They are also called _________.Carl Jung Inherited tendencies within the collective conscious "gods of the unconscious"Archetypes will... They are often linked to...dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations life events like death, marriage, and birthSome archetypes can directly... List the 4 archetypesshape our personality! PASS Persona Anima and Animus Shadow SelfPersona is... It may or may not... It is similar to...Archetype by Carl Jung ... the mask we wear when we come into contact with people ... align with the person's actual personality ... role playingAnima AnimusArchetype, Carl Jung Each person exhibits some characteristics of the opposite sex Anima= feminine characteristics in men Animus = masc characteristics in womenShadow (3)Archetype, Carl Jung Animalistic part of the personality Immoral and unacceptable desires Urges us to pursue these actsSelf (2)Carl Jung's most important archetype Unifies all aspects of the unconscious into a coherent personality Provides stability and drives us towards self-actualizationWhat is the most important archetype?the SelfAccording to Carl Jung, self-actualization begins in our ....30s - 40sCarl Jung wrote... It described... (3)"Psychological Types" Described the distinction b/w introversion and extroversion Developed a scale for them Described how opposing attitudes are reflected in the direction of life energy (libido)Carl Jung called life energy He argued this life energy could be... (2)libido inward turning (introversion) or outward turning (extraversion)Carl Jung's Psychological types include: What did these types inspire?FITS Thinking: a conceptual process that provides meaning and understanding Feeling: a subjective process of weighing and valuing Sensing: the conscious perception of physical objects Intuiting: involves perceiving in an unconscious way The MBTIMBTI DichotomiesExtraversion/Introversion Sensing/Intuiting Thinking/Feeling Judging/PerceivingThinking and Feeling are ________ modes of responding. Sensing and Intuiting are _________ modes of responding and do not involve _______rational; irrational; reasonMBTI means It has ______ psychological types It has ________ validity.Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 8 poorWhat has Carl Jung contributed to psychology? (4)He inspired literature He developed a word-association test that is still used today to study emotions The MBTI was inspired by him He inspired Maslow's self-actualization researchAlfred Adler was born in _______ to a _____ family. His childhood was __________ and he thought he was _______. He almost died from ________. He eventually died from ______.Vienna; rich miserable; ugly pneumonia; heart diseaseWhat got Adler interested in psychoanalysis?Reading "Interpretation of Dreams"_________ and __________ were 2 of the founding members of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.Adler; FreudDescribe Adler and Freud's relationship. What did Freud say about Adler? Freud was happy that, compared to Adler, he...They were never friends. Became rivals after Adler resigned from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society presidency. Freud: Adler is "driven mad by ambition, paranoid, jealous, and short". Freud lived longerAdler's version of Psychoanalysis was called _________. It argued that...Individual psychology Behaviour is driven by social forces, not biology.Individual psychology develops... It minimizes... It is most concerned with...... in infancy and develops through experiences ... the influence of sex ... the conscious (not the unconscious)Social InterestAdler A part of individual psychology that argues that humans have an innate potential to cooperate with others to achieve goals.Adler believed people are more focused on ________. Freud believed people are more focused on ________.the future the pastAdler argued that humans are driven by a _____________.a dynamic force (to superiority)What did Adler and Freud think of equality of the genders?Freud- not much equality (penis envy) Adler- equalityAlfred Adler: Science (4)BIIC Individual Psychology Birth order Inferiority Complex CompensationInferiority Complex What causes it?Alfred Adler A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings Helplessness and dependence on other people awaken this sense of inferiorityWhat did Adler think caused many mental illnesses? What did he think was a motivating force in behaviour?The Inferiority ComplexWhat did Adler think people are quite sensitive about?Organ weaknessCompensation OvercompensationAlfred Adler Compensation: develop other senses instead (when an organ is bad- ex. hearing) Overcompensation: develop a weakness into a strength (ex. public speaking after a stutter)Birth Order First Born Second Born Youngest Child Only ChildAdler: Relationship between birth order and personality First born: -dethroned by the second child, and then experiences a crisis -more insecure, hostile, authoritarian -more likely to be criminal or neurotic Second born: -ambitious, rebellious, jealous of 1st child -strive to be better than 1st born -may have reflected Adler's position as 2nd born Youngest: -most likely to be spoiled -experience later behavioural problems Only child: -Center of attention -Have problems later on relating to peopleWhat did Adler think caused birth order personality changes?Your birth order influences how you are treated in relation to others in your family.Why did Freud's followers turn to Adler? (2)His theories were more positive and hopeful They didn't like Freud's sex obsessionWhy were Adler's theories criticized? (2)1. Freud- they are "too simple" 2. UnfalsifiableWhich of Adler's theories are supported scientifically? (2) Which are not? (2)Support: -First borns: higher intelligence, need to achieve more education, anxiety when siblings are born -Later borns more prone to stress No support: -Mixed findings on second-born -no support for only childrenAdler had a stronger influence in ________, Freud had a stronger influence in __________.North America; EuropeKaren Horney was born in _________. Her father was ______ and her mother was _________. Growing up, she had a lack of __________, which led to ___________ (disorder). Throughout her life she was often ___________. She had _______ children and had a relationship with ____________.Germany; strict; liberal parental love; basic anxiety; depressed 3; Erich FrommKaren Horney studied _________ at the University of ________. Where did she begin studying psychology? How old was she when her psychology career started? What did she do?Berlin; medical She began studying psychology at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute. She began working as an analyst at age 33.Karen Horney was the first _________ (2)Major female analyst Woman to present a paper on feminist psychology at a psychoanalytic meetingWhat did Karen Horney's Freudian analyst suggest?That she had oedipal longings for her father.Karen Horney worked at the ________. She formed the _____________ and founded the ____________.New York Psychoanalytic institute; American Institute for Psychoanalysis; American Journal of PsychoanalysisHow did Karen Horney describe her work?As an extension of Freud's system.What did Karen Horney agree with Freud on? (2) What did she disagree with him on? (5)Agree: -the unconscious -personality develops in early years Disagree: -the preeminence of sexual factors -the concept of libido -the Id, Ego, and Superego -personality continues to develop throughout life -development is based on treatment from peers and parents, not psychosexual stagesWhat did Karen Horney propose that was similar to Freud?Womb envy (instead of penis envy)What was the core of Karen Horney's psychology system?Basic AnxietyKaren Horney thought that ______ are driven by a need for _________ and ________.infants; safety; securityKaren Horney thought that neuroses are caused by ____________ and result in ____________.Cause: parental actions like dominance, lack of protection and love, and erratic behaviour Result: pervasive loneliness and helplessnessThere are _______ neurotic needs. This was proposed by __________. They lead to __________. They include __________, __________ and __________.10; Karen Horney; 3 personality types affection; achievement; self-sufficiencyKaren Horney: Science (4)Neurotic Needs Basic anxiety Idealized self-image Feminine psychology3 personality types arise from __________. They were proposed by ________. Their goal is __________. Describe the 3 types, their associated quotes, and the problem that can arise from each of them.neurotic needs; Karen Horney; protection Compliant personality: -moving toward people -need for affection and approval -"if I give in, I shall not be hurt" -Problem: acceptance of being helpless to gain affection Detached personality: -moving away from people -a need for independence -"If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me" -Problem: withdrawing from others damages social relationships Aggressive personality: -moving against people -a need for power and admiration -"If I have power, no one can hurt me" -Problem: can lead to conflicts with othersAccording to Karen Horney, what can fixed behaviour patterns do?impact relationships with othersIdealized self-image What is it? What can prevent it?Karen Horney It's a mask that prevents neurotics from understanding themselves, and provides a person with a false picture of their own personality. It is also a method for denying neurotics' inner conflicts. It can be prevented through a warm and secure childhood.According to Karen Horney, neurotics believe their _______ is their true self.maskWhat did Karen Horney write about in terms of feminist psychology?She highlighted the difference between the identity of a traditional vs modern woman She argued that culture influences women's feelings of inferiority (big deal at the time!)Karen Horney said that a traditional woman involved ______________, while a modern woman involved ________.marriage and motherhood careerHumanistic psychology emphasized... (6)HBC PFF Human Strengths Positive Aspirations Conscious experience Free will Fulfillment of human potential Belief in the wholeness of human natureHumanistic psychology was influenced by... (2)Zeitgeist of anti-establishment counter-culture Early theorists (Brentano, Kulpe)Maslow first studied _______. He first learned about psychology at __________ with _____________. What was his first impression of psychology?law; Cornell Unviersity; Titchener Not impressedMaslow was the first grad student of ________. He researched __________ at first. Then, he began studying ____________.Henry Harlow; dominance in monkeys; human sexualityWhat motivated Abraham Maslow to turn to humanistic psychology?The Pearl Harbour attackAccording to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, lower needs are _______. The higher needs are, the more __________.basic; the more distinctly humanWhat are the steps of Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Describe what each step involves.Physiological (7): air, water, food, shelter, sleep, clothing, reproduction Safety (5): Personal security, employment, resources, health, property Love and Belonging (4): friendship, intimacy, family, sense of belonging Esteem (6): respect, self-esteem, status, recognition, strength, freedom Self-actualizationSelf-actualization is the...drive to understand the greatest achievements of which we are each capable; realization of your abilities and potentialHow did Maslow study self-actualization? Who did he think were self-actualized people?He studied people he thought were outstanding and tried to see how they differed from people with normal mental health. Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, George Washington CarverPrerequisites to achieving self-actualization include (2)Sufficient love in childhood and safety needs in the first 2 years Self-esteem early in lifeMaslow proposed ______ tendencies of self-actualizers. These include:11 Tendencies DA SAME CROCS 1. An objective perception of reality (realistic) 2. Full acceptance of their nature 3. Commitment and dedication to some kind of work 4. Simplicity and naturalness of behaviour 5. Need for autonomy and independence 6. Intense mystical or peak experiences 7. Empathy with and affection for all of humanity 8. Resistance to conformity 9. Democratic character structure 10. Attitude of creativeness 11. High degree of what Adler called Social InterestMaslow: Contributions (2)1. Inspired other psychologists to embrace humans 2. Alternative to behaviourism and psychoanalysisWhich of Maslow's ideas were found to be real? (2)1. Support for the notion of self-actualization 2. Support that self-actualization is more likely to occur later in lifeCarl Rogers was born in _______ to a _______ family. His parents were ______. He was schoolmates with __________ and married ___________.Chicago; rich; Christian fundamentalists Ernest Hemmingway; Helen ElliotWhat did Carl Rogers think that was controversial?That there are no bad peopleHow did Rogers become interested in science? What caused him to leave religion?His father ran his farm scientifically He attended a Christian conference in China and left the Church afterwardsCarl Rogers studied _______ and ________ at ___________. He then worked for 9 years at ______________.clinical and educational psychology; Columbia University; Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to ChildrenWhat did Carl Rogers think about self-actualization? (2) What did he think could hinder it? What is needed for it?It is the greatest motivating force in psychology The urge for self-actualization is innate Can be hindered by events in childhood; unconditional love of a mother for her infant is needed.Conditions of Worth are when... (1) They can lead to... (2)Carl Rogers When love is conditional on acting a certain way This leads to people prioritizing others' values instead of their own, AND mental health problems.Fully Functioning People are... (6)Carl Rogers FIT COP 1. Openness and appreciation of all experience 2. Tendency to live fully in every moment 3. Guided by their own instincts rather than pure reason or others' opinions 4. Sense of freedom in thought and action 5. High degree of creativity 6. Continual need to maximize potentialWho did Carl Rogers think were more likely to become self actualized?fully functioning peoplePerson-Centred Therapy is when... (3)Carl Rogers PUE Therapist uses unconditional positive regard Allows the client to feel any emotions Attitude of understandingPerson-centred therapy allows clients to...become more positively valuedRogers argued that mental health problems occur when...there is discrepancy between the self-concept and the ideal selfHumanistic psychology strengthened the idea that...people can shape their livesHumanistic psychology was more _________ oriented than ______ oriented.clinical; dataWho said "relentless focus on the negative has left psychology blind to many instances of growth, mastery, drive, and insight that develop out of undesirable, painful life events"Martin SeligmanMartin Seligman had a _________ at age _______. He attended a ____________. Currently, he runs a lab at _________.stroke; 13 private military academy; University of PennsylvaniaSeligman is known for his work on ___________ and __________.learned helplessness; happinessMoneyMartin Seligman -People who earned more money were more satisfied with their life -Lack of money leads to unhappiness (although money doesn't necessarily lead to happiness)What did Martin Seligman think leads to happiness? (3)Feeling respected, being in control, having friends/familyHealth & Age (3)Martin Seligman Factor of happiness Poor health is linked to reduced life satisfaction Well-being improves with ageMarriage (2)Martin Seligman Factor of happiness If both are happy, marriage increases happiness over being single or divorcedPersonality factors that are linked to happiness (4)Martin Seligman HICE High efficacy Internal locus of control Extraversion Conscientiousness5 components of FlourishingMartin Seligman A PERM 1. positive emotions 2. engagement 3. relationships 4. meaning 5. achievementMartin Seligman wrote a book aboutFlourishingIn recent years, Martin Seligman has changed his perspective from happiness to happiness being a component of ________.Flourishing
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Forms are given in the Working Papers.
On June 30 of the current year, Roettger Repair Co. received a bank statement dated June 29. The following information is obtained from the bank statement and from the records of the business.
Bank statement balance $3,912.00 Bank service charge 25.00 Outstanding deposits: June 29 470.00 June 30 660.00 Outstanding checks: No. 220$ 140.00 No. 222 616.00 No. 223 160.00 Checkbook balance on Check Stub No. 224 4,151.00
- Record the service charge on journal page 12. Use Memorandum No. 75 as the source document.
“There’s no reason for me to get excited about the choice between the weighted-average and FIFO methods in my process-costing system. I have long-term contracts with my materials suppliers at fixed prices.” Do you agree with this statement made by a plant controller? Explain.
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