Peripheral Nervous System: Lecture 34, Dec 6.

Describe the gross and microscopic structure of the spinal
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_______________ dendritic endings consist of a dendrite enclosed in a connective tissue capsule and detect discriminatory touch, initial, continuous, and deep pressure, and stretch of muscles, tendons, and joint capsules.encapsulatedGraded receptor potentials that can trigger action potentials to travel along the axon to the CNS.________receptors are stimulated by mechanical force, such as touch, pressure, vibration, and stretch.mechanoreceptors________receptors detect changes in temperature________receptors detect light.________receptors are stimulated by chemicals, such as odours, tastes, or chemical components of body fluids________ceptors respond to painful stimuli.What are exteroceptors?Are located at or near the body surface and detect stimuli from outside the body, such as touch, pressure, pain, skin temperature receptors, and most of the special senses. (provide information about the external environment)What are interoceptors?Associated with internal organs and vessels, monitor chemical changes, stretch, or temperatureWhat are proprioreceptors?are found within skeletal muscles, joints, and associated connective tissues and relay information about body movements____________ is the awareness of changes in the internal and external environment.sensation____________ is the conscious interpretation of those stimuli. First-order sensory neurons carry impulses from receptors. Second-order neurons transmit to the cerebellum or third-order neurons, which carry impulses to the postfrontal gyrus.perceptionThe perception of pain protects....the body from damage and is stimulated by extremes of pressure and temperature, as well as chemicals released from damaged tissuesThe pain _____________ is the stimulus intensity at which we begin to perceive pain and is the same for most people. Pain _____________ is a genetically determined trait with learned aspects that varies from person to person. Like any other perception, perceived pain can be affected by the environmentVisceral pain results from...........stimulation of receptors within internal organs from stimuli such as extreme stretch, ischemia, chemical irritation, and muscle spasmsVisceral pain travels along the same fibre tracts as somatic pain impulses, giving rise to __________ pain that feels as though it is located in an area different from the affected body region.Peripheral nerves, either cranial or spinal, are classified according to....the direction in which they transmit impulses_________ nerves contain both sensory and motor fibres. Most nerves are mixed nerves.All ventral branches except T 2 -T 12 form interlacing networks called nerve plexuses. Within each plexus, fibres crisscross so that each branch contains fibres from several different spinal nerves. Fibres go to the body periphery via several routes, so that each limb muscle is innervated by more than one spinal nerve and damage to one does not cause _____________paralysis_________________ are areas of skin innervated by cutaneous branches of a single spinal nerve. Most dermatomes overlap, so destruction of a single spinal nerve will not cause complete numbnessDermatomesThe terminals of the somatic motor fibres that innervate voluntary muscles form neuromuscular junctions with their effector cells and they release the neurotransmitter ______________.acetylcholineThe junctions between autonomic motor endings and the visceral effectors form synapses en passant ("synapses in passing") involving varicosities and release either ______________ or ______________ as their neurotransmitteracetylcholine or epinephrine