Investigative techniques

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Evidence that has probative value is evidence that does not help to prove a fact or an issue:
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Terms in this set (84)
When an officer collects a piece of evidence, it is not a good idea to place any marking on the evidence itself because this is considered contamination.trueA crime scene may be held by police for several years.trueA common mistake often made by novice officers is making the crime scene larger than necessary.falseThe role of an "ident" officer is:To identify, document, collect, and preserve physical evidence from a crime sceneThe media are among those commonly allowed access to a crime scene because of their mandate to provide the public with information.falseCriminal investigations are normally conducted by a number of individuals, each with specialized expertise.trueWhich of the following statements about a crime scene is incorrect?Crime scenes are always known to investigatorsThe first officers who arrive at a scene are not responsible for:Alerting the media of the offenceResults of forensic laboratory testing on evidence collected from a crime scene usually take less than a day.falseThe RCMP labs do not handle:Forensic Document ExaminationExpert witnesses must:Have specific knowledge that is beyond that of the trier of factAll of the forensic laboratories in Canada handle defense cases.FalseForensic scientists in a forensic laboratory:Are not police officersThe Anthrax letters in the US involved the following forensic sciences:Forensic Document Examination Biology Trace EvidenceLab scientists work in a forensic lab, attend crime scenes and interview suspects.falseJ. Edgar Hoover visited the first Canadian Forensic Laboratory before he built the FBI lab.trueIn the case of a witness seeing a car crash, she can tell the court that:The person sitting in court is the same person she saw running from the carScientists in the Evidence Recovery Section go to crime scenes and search for and collect evidence.falseArson and terrorist evidence is usually handled by:The Trace Evidence SectionA _____ of evidence is proof of direct contact between two entities.double transferenceHearsay evidence is when a witness testifies to something that was said by another person who is not______________________________________ and is, with certain exceptions, generally inadmissible in court.called as a witnessUnder the authority of the plain-view seizure rule, a police officer may enter a premises without warrant and seize an item visible through a window that there are reasonable grounds to believe has been obtained by or used in the commission of a criminal offence.falseThe terms suspect and person of interest are interchangeable during the course of any investigation as they mean the exact same thing.false_______________________ involves the strategic placement of artifacts intended to be observed by the suspect at the time of interrogation to impress upon the suspect the gravity of the offence and the strength of the evidence against them.ProppingThe original investigation into the murder of nurse overlookeda missing knife complaint to the police.As demonstrated by 2003 UCR homicides statistics, as only 14% of all homicides in Canada in 2003 were committed by strangers, statistical probability infers that preliminary investigative effort should be made to eliminate which of the following categories of people from suspicion in the vast majority of unknown offender or relativesThe decision as to whether or not to interrogate a suspect or accused person may have to be assessed against the possible risk of the person ___________________ once the subject becomes aware that they are suspected of the offence under investigation.destroying evidenceAll interview/interrogation methods:Are rooted in establishing a baseline on behaviours: While establishing a baseline on behaviors can be useful in detecting deception, it is not a necessary component of all interview/interrogation methodsTo terminate an investigation prematurely, without having exhausted all possible and practicable avenues of investigation, is to leave stones unturned, any one of which might conceal the solution to the crime under investigation.trueAll evidence seized during a warrantless search that was not authorized either by statute or common law will be deemed to be inadmissible.falseIf a suspect or accused was arrested or previously dealt with by a police officer other than the interrogator, it is then necessary for the interrogator to administer the secondary caution to the prisoner to minimize the effect of any threat or inducement that may have been made by the previous investigator.trueThe main criteria for declaring someone to be a suspect is the degree of incriminating information linking the person to the crime and not merely the possibility that they might have committed the crime.trueThe two most common circumstances of post-conduct behaviour that might be useful in proving consciousness of guilt are; fleeing the scene of a crime, and ______________________________.destroying, concealing or fabricating evidenceIt is not advisable to take an accused person to court while one or more known suspects have not been eliminated from suspicion.trueThe courts have held that when an individual discards property such as household garbage or trash in a public place, they relinquish their privacy interest in that item and forfeit any reasonable expectation of privacy.trueFirst and foremost requirement of an investigator includes an above average knowledge of both______________________and ___________________.statute law and case law____________________ does not guarantee obtaining a confession, however, it does create an environment that promotes the sharing of sensitive personal information, such as an admission or confession.privacyAn experienced interrogator can often rely merely on one word, one facial expression or a single gesture to formulate an opinion as to whether or not the subject is being deceptive.falseThe discovery of a suspects fingerprints at a crime scene is conclusive evidence of his or her guilt.falseAny form of evidence that can be independently verified, supported or strengthened by another piece of evidence is referred to as being _____________?corroboratedPeople rarely, if ever, divulge closely guarded secrets at distances of less than 1.2 metres, or one arm length.trueWitnesses should always be interviewed as soon as possible following any event under investigation, even if they are under emotional stress or are under the influence of an intoxicating substance, to reduce the possibility of them forgetting valuable information.falseMr. Justice Fred Kaufman defines tunnel vision as, [A] single- minded and overly narrow focus on a particular investigative theory, so as to unreasonably colour the evaluation of information received and ones conduct in response to that information. What does this definition warn investigators about?against forming conclusions not substantiated by the known facts of a caseNon-expert witnesses may be permitted to testify in court about matters that are widely considered to be universal knowledge, such as the speed of a moving vehicle or the effects of intoxication by alcohol on an individual.trueThe Latin term, actus reus, refers to the intent to steal and is a necessary element to prove in a charge of theft.falseInvestigstive data gathered from a paid informant is always unreliable.falseNon-verbal indicators of deception are only usefully if they are repeated at significant times during an interrogation such as following the asking of a direct question.trueA screwdriver that is used to pry open a window during a break in is an example of _____________.real evidence.Victims may disclose the sensitive or embarrassing details of their victimization in a(n) ___________________________ manner to an interviewer, until they trust that the interviewer will believe everything they have to say.incremental.For trace evidence to be transferred from one object to another there must always be direct contact between the two objects.falseBefore a copy of a government book or document is admitted into evidence, the party who produces the copy must give the party against whom the copy will be produced _________________.reasonable noticeIt is sometimes difficult for an investigator to arrive at the truth regarding one or more aspects of an occurrence under investigation as the different participants in an event may have ________________________________________________."substantially different views as to exactly what occurred."A __________________________ is any statement, usually an admission or confession, made by an individual before the investigator has the opportunity to administer the standard caution.spontaneous utteranceAny interview may turn into an interrogation at any time.trueThe Supreme Court of Canada has held that continued questioning of a suspect or accused who has consulted, or has had a reasonable opportunity to consult legal counsel, short of denying the suspect or accused the right to choose to remain silent does not necessarily breach the right to silence providing that the suspect is not coerced into making a statement or is deprived of the choice to remain silent.trueThe objective of invading the suspects personal space is to induce anxiety for the purpose of establishing psychological domination over the suspect.trueWhere a police officer is lawfully positioned at a location and unexpectedly finds incriminating evidence obtained by or used in the commission of a criminal offence, he or she may seize it without warrant under a legal doctrine known as the ________________________________.plain-view seizure doctrineA useful interrogation strategy is to ________________ the suspects actions and the consequences by explaining to the suspect just how many people commit the same type of act everyday.minimizeWhich of the following is correct?Determining probabilities can increase the significance of evidence with class characteristics.In preparing to testify about evidence, witnesses must be prepared to answer a number of fundamental questions, including: What is it? When was it seized? Where has it been stored since it was seized?trueMohan analysis is a test applied by forensic experts to the establish the strength of digital evidence.falseGenerally speaking, an ordinary witness may not give an opinion and may only testify to facts within his or her own knowledge or experience.trueThe primary role of an expert witness is to assist the trier of fact in understanding technical or complex scientific evidence.trueDigital evidence can be presented in whatever format is most convenient for investigators.falseThe Canada Evidence Act is the instrument the courts use to determine the authenticity and admissibility of electronic documents. Who bears the responsibility of proving the authenticity under this doctrine?The party seeking to adduce itIn the case of a Preservation Demand (s. 487.012 of the Criminal Code), a peace officer can demand the preservation of data for a period of:21 daysWhen police attend a site with a search warrant for digital devices, they should bring officers from the Tech Crime Unit.trueData extracted from an Apple iPhone 6 would be the same as data extracted from an earlier model of iPhone because it rarely changes.false"Digital evidence" is information stored or transmitted in binary form that may be relied on in court.trueWhen drafting an Information to Obtain a Search Warrant, an affiant must be very specific about the types of data they seek.trueAn example of a simple online investigation could be someone selling stolen property on a classified websitetrueWhen engaging in obtaining evidence from open source searches on the surface web, police should: (pp. 228-29)Authenticate and corroborate what evidence they find Be able to explain or articulate their authorities for doing soBefore engaging on a social network, what best describes the most important factors for police?Decide on what the account should be called and what it will be used forThe FBI includes information obtained from newspapers, radio and television as OSINT (Open Source Intelligence).true