Upgrade to remove ads
Option A - Freshwater Terminology (IB Geography - HL)
Terms in this set (149)
1929: Nile Water agreement Egypt 67% Ethiopia 0%
During colonial era the British gave Egypt 66% of the entire flow of the Nile river, but gave none to Ethiopia even though the source & 80% of the water comes from there.
3 gorges dam
Is the world largest dam. It is in China on the Yangtze by the town of Sandouping.
97% salt, 2 % ice 1% fresh
how water is distributed around the globe
Taking water from a lake/reservoir/river etc... e.g. Ogallala fossil aquifer in Egypt, water being extracted for agricultural purposes (mainly potatoes)
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in water systems
All American Canal
An irrigation canal which extracts water from the Colorado River and transports it to the Imperial Valley for irrigation. It runs parellel to the US/Mexico border, so it doubles as border defence. It is contravercial as it extracts most of the remaining water in the Colorao before the river leaves the USA and enters Mexico.
The river floods, depositing sediment which builds up as a flat bread
Amu and Syr Rivers (Aral Sea)
The two rivers which flow into the Aral Sea. Both rivers were diverted into irrigation channels in the 1980's to provide water for cotton production. This abstraction of water has lead to the decline of the Aral Sea, and significant ecological problems.
A body of permeable rock which can contain or transmit groundwater.
Marshlands in Iraq, inhabbited by the Marsh Arabs. They are dissapearing which is leading to issues in the marshlands.
Arab Spring & GERD
February 2011, Mubarak (Egyptian President) is overthrown as a continuation of the Arab Spring in North Africa. 1 week later, Ethiopia announce the construction of GERD.
Aral Sea and Cotton
Is an inland seas 2x the size of Belgium, drying out as the surrounding countries are taking water out of the rivers that feed it in order to irrigate cotton plantations, which are a very thirsty crop. It's on the border between khazakstan and Uzbekistan, and Khazakstan has recently made a dam to keep their water, Uzbekistan however has a major problem.
The process in which water is pumped and replenished into an aquifer by human activity
An embarkement dam is built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt. Built to try and control flooding in Egypt so they do not have infrastructure loss.
type of erosion: when rocks in a river load crash into each other and the river banks, causing pieces to break off
Bahrain and Salt Water Intrusion
Salt water intrusion: sea water enters freshwater reserves when sea level rises, drawn up water then goes salty. Eg: In Bahrain they drew up so much water from the aquifer that they had a huge problem with salinization and the plants died.
Baltic Sea Eutrophication
The baltic sea is surrounded by rich european countrys. The baltic sea is full of runoff chemicals and fertilizers, the surrounding countrys all have claims to the water and lots of coastline. the result is largescale eurtrophication
Lowest point to which a river can errode down to (usually sea level, but can be applied on a local scale). Example of a local situation is our Lac Leman.
Bermuda rainwater harvest
Rain water is harvested from the roof for drinking and everyday purpose. Water is stored under the bulding in a tank, by law 80% of a roof has to be able to collect water.
Human made Wetlands in India. They have developed into an almost natural ecosystem, with large amounts of biodiversity. They have recently been under threat from exponential population growth, however, the 'Lake Bhopal Conservation and Management Project' has had success in preserving and protecting the ecosystems
number showing the ratio between the number of streams of one order and those of the next-higher order in a drainage network
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
A way of measuring pollution in water, it's a measure of oxygen in the water that is available to aerobic biological organisms in the water.
Biological monitoring working party (BMWP Scores)
A procedure for measuring water quality using families of macroinvertebrates as biological indicators.
Blue & White Nile
The 2 main tributaries of the Nile. The Blue Nile provides 80% of the rivers water and rises in the Ethiopian Highlands, while the White Nile flows north from Rwanda and Uganda.
Model showing an increase in depth, width, velocity, discharge and load volume with increasing distance downstream; and a decrease in load size, channel bed roughness and gradient with increasing distance downstream
Braiding is common in the lower course of a river, where there is significant deposition (especially in the summer). The river breaks up into several channels, and small islands (EYOTS) are created.
Centre Pivot Irrigation
a method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers
Clay and cohesion
Due to the cohesion of the clay which makes it very smooth, the velocity on the holjstrum curve must be vey high for it to be able to move clay along the river.
Clearing and Snagging
Flood mitigation technique which involves the removal of trees and shrubs which would trap debris in a river flood. Usually seen as soft, but could also be considered hard engineering.
Coastal Dead Zones
Eutrophication of the oceans around the deltas. The rivers take all the agricultural runoff downstream with them, and deposit it in the ocean at the mouth of the river, causing eutrophiction and a section of the ocean where nothing can grow.
In 1922 the colorado compact was created among the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.The major purposes of this compact are to provide for the equitable division and apportionment of the use of the waters of the Colorado River System.
For 6 million years the Colorado river ran to the sea of Cortez. Since 1998 it has not. Because the US has taken out so much water for irrigation it no longer reaches the sea
When farmland on a hillside is ploughed horizontally to stop rainfall running off the hilside to straight into the river to ensure crops get watered
Contour Ploughing and Terracing
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. The steps are usually filled with water and and are most commonly used to grow rice in mountainous areas.
DDT and Biomagnification
DDT is a fertilizer that is now banned in most countries in europe. In small quantities does not kill but when larger predators like birds of prey have large quantities they go infertile
Desalination and Environmental Cost
Even though Desanination costs a lot (a large scale desalination plant serving 300,000 people typically costs in the region of $100 million), energy costs, rather than environmental concerns, have been the main deterrent to desalination plant expansion.
The amount of water passing through the cross section of a river at any given time, mesherd in cubic meters per second. cross sectional area x velocity
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Is the volume of gaseous oxygen dissolved in water
a branch of a river that leaves and doesn't rejoin the main stream
An irrigation system that allows water directly to the roots, either above or below ground. It is significantly more efficient than sprinkler systems
Drop a Brick for CA
A campaign set up in California because of the drought, the concept is to Drop a Brick in a toilet tank, it takes up volume and saves water for every flush.
aka Virtual Water. Water which is required for the production of products. For example 50 litres of water is required for the production of one Orange.
Environmental problems caused by overuse of groundwater
Absraction of too much water from an aquifer, can cause: SUBSIDENCE, SALINIZATION, DEPLETION, SALT WATER INTRUSION & EARTHQUAKES.
Ephemeral River or stream
A river which does not always flow. The LA river in California is ephemeral.
when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Process by wich water is transferred from the land to the atmoshphere. Is is transfereedd via evaporation from the soil, the leaves and other ground surfaces.
A river whose headwaters are in a wet region and whose lower course is in an arid region. The Nile and Colorado are Exotic rivers.
The small 'islands' caused by braiding of rivers in the deltas.
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areasIt may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm, or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields.
A flashy hydrograph has a short lag time, high peak discharge, and steep rising and falling limbs. The river is more likely to flood.
aka: surface irrigation, when farmland is ploughed in rows so water sits in dips and crops grow on "bumps" to water plants. uses lots of water. good for albedo, can reduce heat absorbtion
Flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. Good place for farming due to alluvial soil.
A very old aquifer that has no chance of being refilled. very unsustainable but still used
the process of injecting liquid at high pressure into subterranean rocks, boreholes, etc. so as to force open existing fissures and extract oil or gas.
A aquifer that is under Geneva that provides drinking water for the city. In 1960 the water level in the aquifer was not being recharged due to the amount of useage. They constructed an artifical recharge system which took water from the river Arve which has kept the level of water stable.
Grand Ethiopian Renaisance Dam. It is a dam being built by Ethiopia on the river Nile. Egypt is worried the dam will be used to limit the flow of water via the Nile to Egypt. The dam was announced shortly after the arab spring reached Egypt
Global Hydrological Cycle a Closed System
water doesn't leave or enter our planet making it a closed cycle
The slope of the river, in the upper course the gradient will be much steeper than in the lower course
A roof of a building that is covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.
Managing a river in such a way that it has a negative impact on the natural environment.
When the water flows in a corkscrew motion as it goes around a meander.
Model used to show the velocity required for a river to erode, transport and deposit its load. Clay needs greater velocities as it has a coehisive nature.
Hoover Dam/Lake Mead
First mega dam ever built. Construction began in 1931. A concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona.
Hydraulic Radius is the cross section of the flow, divided by the wetted perimeter.
Hydrologic Changes due to Dam Construction
Dam construction will change the hydrology upstream and downstream of the dam. Increased evaporation, groundwater recharge, colder & cleaner water downstream, moderated river regime.
Looking at the whole drainage basic holisticaly, and figuring out how much water evryone shoudld fairly get, making sure to account for sustainability and welbeing of the river
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
The rain or precipitation that gets intercepted by leaves, branches of plants and the forest floor.
when farm land is watered when rainfall is insufficient: surface(flood) irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, sub surface irrigation and drip irrigation.
ISS and water
International Space Station - like a closed system (metaphor for our planet) - they only have whats in the space station so they have to use reverse osmosis to make water.
a large channellized river that is unknown by most of LA and recently has become much smaller and almost inexsistant
Time between peak rainfall and peak discharge.
Lake Mead and Las vegas
Once Hoover dam was built Lake Mead formed as a reservoir, with out it Las Vegas would not have expanded to what it is today. It provides lots of electricity for Vegas and some water but most of it comes from an underground aquifer.
Lake Naivasha, Kenya
Site of Agro-industrialisation. Lake Naivasha is a lake in Kenya which is seriously suffering from unsustainable growing of flowers, notably by Oserian. The lake has dropped by 4 meters and the ground water by 25 meters since the early 1980's.
Land Use Planning
Planning the areas in which infrastructure can be built, this can help reduce flooding as you wouldn't put houses near a river, instead you may use it for a golf course as it doesn't matter if it floods.
An embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river.
Los Angeles Aqueduct (Owens Valley aqueduct)
Water transported from Owens Valley to quench the thirst of LA. The LA Aquaduct is 674km long and is very contravercial as water rights in Owens valley were obtained in a dubious manner.
A roughness coefficient, calculated to show how how well water will flow across a spcific river bed.
the small part of land between a very sinuous meander, where the river almost meets. as time passes, the neck becomes smaller due to erosion. is this continues the neck will meet and the meander will become an oxbow lake
Long, parallel, crescent-shaped ridges and troughs formed along the inner bank of a river meander as it migrates down-valley.
Agreement between Mexico and the United States to provide Colorado river water managment guidlines. More discharge granted to Mexico, in a hope of recreating the Colorado Delta. 2014.
Multi Purpose Dam
Dams and reservoirs are usually created for many reasons: Flood prevention, Water provision, Recreation, Transport, HEP.
Based around people, environment, and the economy. Aimed to: increase flow back into the river (change in weather system would benefit agriculture, groundwater refilled, river flows even in drought), reduce the water being taken out (efficient irrigation payed for by the government). The amount of ater the river gets in the year correlates with the amount of water the farmers get that year.
Natural Levee formation
The natural movement of water pushing sediments such as silt onto the side of the bank causing the banks of the rivver to be slightly elevated, creating a natural levee.
A complex fertilizer made up of the three main chemicals required for fertilizer, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium. One of the main contributors of eutrophication.
Aquifer underneath the Great Plains (USA) provides freshwater for roughly one-fifth of the wheat, corn, cattle and cotton in the United States
A dutch flower company that grows its flowers by Lake Naivasha in Kenya. These flowers are then flown back to Europe for sale as they would wilt on a boat journey. Has attracted 300,000 people who want to work for them. These people have led to there being huge pollution in the lake as well as using up significant amounts of fish.
a curved lake formed from a horseshoe bend in a river where the main stream has cut across the narrow end and no longer flows around the loop of the bend.
Peat is a type of earth found in swamps. It can be used for fuel or agriculture. found in large quantities in the UK
The seepage of water downwards into permeable rock.
Is a type of surface that can be used on roads, pavements, car parks... instead of asphalt. It can be used as a flood mitigation tecnique as it absorbes water, decreasing surface run off and the speed at which water reaches the river. http://kanat.jsc.vsc.edu/student/spatafora/setup.htm
a system that uses the energy created by children playing to operate a water pump similar to a windmill-driven water pump manufactured by the South African company Roundabout Outdoor
Pools and Riffles
Pools are found in meanders and riffles are found in the sections between meanders, the disrance between each section of pools and riffles should be 5x the bedwidth
Potatoes in the desert
Contreversial use of fossil water in northen Egypt to grow potatoes for the European market in the winter.
Collecting water from the roof or a catchment. Bermuda rainwater harvest nis an example of this.
Wetland covention which began in 1971(signed in Ramsar, Iran), aimed at the conservation of Wetlands. The Bhoj Wetland is a Ramsar site.
Renaissence Dam, Ethipia (GERD)
Due to be completed in the next 2 years. Major dam on the Blue Nile, and the largest infrastructure project in Ethiopia. Potential to cause conflict with downstream neighbours who will ultimately receive less water.
A process by which a solvent passes through a porous membrane in the direction opposite to that for natural osmosis when subjected to a hydrostatic pressure greater than the osmotic pressure.
Riffle and Pool relationship to Channel Width
Distance between two pools is usally 5 times the width of the river.
The rights that farmers or other parties have to harvest the water from a river.
The discharge of the river increasing (on a flood hydrograph)
The river cole is being attempted to be reverted back to its original state wich will allow it to flood naturally. Wetland will be restored and will absorb most of the flood water. De-straigntening of the river allowing the river to meader. Wildlife concervation has increased habitat and animal diversity. The increase in vegetation has increased the interception of pollutants, improving the water quality.
River Dominated Delta
An elongated delta (eg. Mississippi) SO much sediment that it sticks out into the sea. Usually when there isn't much wave or tidal energy.
River Long Profile
a diagram of the course the river takes from source to mouth.
Reversing damage done to a river by human management by (for eg) afforestation, removing levees, removing channelization and reintroduction of native species.
The variability in its discharge throughout the course of a year in response to precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and drainage basin characteristics (Beckinsale, 1969)
Also called river channeling or bank concreting, this process shortens the distance of the river and speeds up the water away from vulnerable areas such as cities.
When the soil becomes more salty. Irrigation can lead to salinization if you are watering in an area where evaporation is higher then percipitation which draws up salt from rocks underground.
Salt Water Intrusion
Is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, usually caused by humans pumping fresh water out of an aquifer allowing saltwater to 'intrude'
Social, Economic, Environmental and Political. It is a way of evaluating a program e.g. a Dam
The juice that comes out from the decay of silage which very toxic, one of the worst environmental effects of agriculture because it runs off into nearby water streams and areas.
The 'windeyness' of a river. Calculated by: actual length of a river section/straight line length of the same section.
Slip Off Slope
The slope in the meander of a river which goes from the river beach down to the bottom of the river cliff.
Sluice gates and flood basins
Considered a soft/structural technique to mitigate flooding. This is a mini dam which is normally open, but can be closed at times of flood to hold back water, causing a temporary flood basin. Eg. River Wyre, UK
A semi-liquid mixture, typically of fine particles of manure, cement, or coal and water.
Doing work on a river which does not involve hard engineering such as concrete river bed. Soft engineering is like adding vegitation to the river sides to maintain structure.
South-North Water Transfer Project
A project in China which aims to bring water from the wet south of the country to the dry and populous north by building an extenisve pipeline system.
The people involved in the issue.
Stream order is a measure of the relative size of the streams. The smallest tributaries are referred to as first-order streams, while the largest river in the world, the Amazon, is a twelfth-order waterway. First- through third-order streams are called headwater streams.
Sub Surface Irrigation
Also known as drip irrigation. Consists of planting drip irrigation tubing about 5 inches below the surface.
Sustainable Yield of Freshwater
using water from areas which will be fully replenished by rain, and not taking more than what can be replaced
The part of the river where the flow is the fastest. Right in the middle on a straight part of a river and in the bends of a meander.
Tide Dominated Delta
a river that has very wide tributaries eg the ganges. when the tide comes in it widens the bank.
Tide, Wave or River Dominated
There are 3 types of deltas: tide, wave or river.
Trans-boundary water dispute
"When two or more countries share a water source and both have riparian rights but either they don't use it equally or feel like they deserve more which creates a conflict between the counties. (Example Egypt and Ethiopia)
Turkey's GAP Dam Project
The Guneydogu Andalolu projesi (southeastern Anatolia Project) is a turkish plan to create 13 irrigation and hydropower schemes, involving the construction of 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants on both the Tigris and the Euphrates. It is expected to provide a quarter of Turkeys electricity upon completion. It is however a source of conflict as it will mostly ill effect Turkeys Kurdish population, it could also drastically decrease river flow to Syria & Iraq.
Virtual / Embedded Water
how much water goes into something. e.g burger -> water for grass, water for cow to drink , water for crops for bun....
The amount of water consumed by human activity, not only from the tap etc... but including virtual water used to produce food, energy, clothes etc...
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
Many believe that conflict and war may be fought over the provision of water as populations become more 'water stressed'.
The division between one drainage basin and another. This is usually the highest point of land surrounding the DB.
Wave Dominated Delta
A rounded delta (Eg Nile Delta). When a river reaches an ocean or lake, the waves refract around the sediment creating a distinctive rounded delta shape.
"1. Flood Contol
2. Groundwater replenishment
3. Shoreline stabilisation and storm protection
4. sediment and nutrient retention and export
5. water purification
6. resevoirs of biodiversity
7. wetland products
8. cultural values
9. recreation and tourism
10. climate change mitigation and adaption
Different wetlands have a range of services depending on their type, size and location."
Wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross section which is wet.
Flood Mitigation (hard/structural) which are barriers, similar to groynes, which stick out into the river, trapping sediment and causing the river to dig deeper into the channel deepening the channel and holding more water. Common on the Mississippi.
Yellow Mellow, Brown Down.
Water conservation technique; if you pee don't flush the toilet, only flush if you poo
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Unit 2 - Global Climate (IB Geography - HL)
Unit 1 - Changing Population (IB Geography - HL)
Unit 3 - Global Resource Consumption & Security (I…
HL Extension - Global Interactions (Units 4, 5 & 6)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP Environmental Science Water
Chapter 13: Water Resources
Chapter 13 Envir: Water: A Limited Resource
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
IB Geo Paper 3 Key Stats for Case Studies
IB Geo Paper 2 Key Stats for Case Studies
IB Geo Paper 1 Key Stats for Case Studies
IGCSE Volcanoes & Earthquakes Vocab
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Micro-Mycology I and II
AP Govt Final Review Unit 1 Ch. 3
DINOS QUIZ FIVE