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TecBec Book questions "Factfulness"
Terms in this set (100)
What was the author's dream as a child?
To become a sword swallower
What did he end up studying?
How does the author assure that the reader will perform better in the test by the end of the book?
By providing a simple set of thinking tools
What happened in 2015 at the World Economic Forum in Davos?
Even this top international audience were getting basic facts about the world wrong.
Why was the dramatic worldview so persistent?
We all have the dramatic worldview which is based on the way our brains work. The human brain is a product of millions of years of evolution, relying on instincts for survival and craving for drama.
What is the benefit of a fact-based world view?
We make better decisions (we even beat the chimps at suveys!), are aware of real dangers and possibilities, and are no longer stressed about the wrong things (p. 16).
What is the mega misconception about the world?
Divided in two - them versus us, the west and the rest
What is wrong with this picture? (don't know how to upload pictures, it's in the book on page 26, lower left)
It is outdated. It belongs to 1965. 75 % live in middle income countries today.
What are the four income levels?
Level 1: 1$ a day, 5 children, can't afford medical care
Level 2: 4 $ day, can buy medicine but this expense would throw you back to Level 1
Level 3: 16 $ a day, work 7 days a week, they have electricity
Level 4: over 64 $ a day
How many people were on level 1 200 years ago?
85% of the world population was living in extreme poverty.
What are the three warning signings that someone is telling an overdramatic gap story and thereby triggering the gap instinct?
Comparisons of averages (averages can mislead by hiding a big spread; comparisons of averages tend to hide the overlaps), extremes (can disguise that most people are in the middle) and the view from up there (people on level 1 tend to overlook the big differences between levels 1, 2 and 3 as they all look 'poor' from the perspective of level 1)
How does the author summarise factfulness at the end of chapter 1?
Recognise the gap, look for majority, beware of comparisons of averages and extremes
How did the author escape death as a child?
Falling into a sewage ditch and being saved by his grandmother
What do the majority of people think is happening to the world?
The world is bad and it is getting worse
How many people lived in extreme poverty 20 years ago, in 1997, and what is this figure in 2017?
29 % in 1997; today it is 9%. Lots of people have managed to escape misery and suffering.
What level was Sweden when the author was born in 1948?
Level 3 (same as Egypt today)
What does Sweden's development (Lifespan and income) over 200 years show?
Sweden has developed a lot over the last 200 years (just like most others countries have done or are doing).
Name some of the 16 bad things in the world that are decreasing?
Legal slavery, oil spills, HIV, (will add more, page (60-61))
Name some of the 16 good things in the world that are increasing?
New movies, literacy, child cancer survival, mobile phones (will add more (62-63))
How did locals react to the Swedish journalist and author Lasse Berg's report about poverty in India in the 1970's and comparing it to the 90's?
They couldn't believe that they made so much progress.
What is the problem of the media and activists?
We hear about more and more disasters and crime and get an illusion of constant deterioration, while the reality is the opposite (reduction in crime, fewer disasters)
What effect does increasing press freedom and improving technology have on our world perception?
People think crime rates are going up
How can we control the negativity instinct?
We should think of the world as a premature baby in an incubator (still needing care, but gradually improving). Expect bad news (as this is how the media work with their sensationalist stories) but be aware that they are not representative. Be aware that negative events are much more likely to be reported worldwide. Beware of 'rosy past' stories.
What was the most frightening graph the author saw?
Graph showing cases of Ebola doubling
What does the author mean by the world's population is not just increasing?
This implied that if nothing is done, the population will keep on growing. In fact, the world population will stop growing at 10 billion.
What comparison does the author make to help the reader understand the straight line instinct?
His grandson's height
What prediction does the UN make about the world population over the next few decades?
The curve will flatten out at somewhere between 10 and 12 billion
What chart does Rosling refer to as the most dramatic in the book?
The average number of babies per woman from 1800 to today
What is the fill up effect?
The children who already exist today will grow up and fill up the diagram
What was the argument against Melinda and Bill Gates' philanthropic foundation?
Saving poor children just increases the world population. But in reality, eradicating extreme poverty leads to parents deciding to have fewer children.
What do trends tend to follow (if they don't follow straight lines)?
S-bends, slides, humps doubling lines
What is his advice concerning lines (predictions for the future)?
Don't assume straight lines.
What story does Rosling tell about being a young doctor facing his first emergency?
(Story of the crashl landed swedish pilot he mistook for a downed russian fighter pilot)
Nothing was as it appeared: the Russian was Swedish, war was peace, epileptic seizure was cooling
What is the point of the story? (pilot in the emergency room)
Fear clouds our judgement. We do not see clearly when we are afraid.
What are the four things most people are afraid of?
Snakes, spiders, heights, confined spaces
What was the midwife's wish in order to make her work easier?
What was the outcome of the Chicago convention for flight authorities in 1944
More understanding about risks and improved safety procedures
Who does Rosling say has fully understood the power of fear instinct?
What view of the world does Wikipedia present?
A distorted worldview
What does the book tell us about terrorism at Level 4?
It is decreasing
How can we control the fear instinct?
Calculate the risks (risk equals danger multiplied by exposure)
What was Rosling's difficult task when in Mozambique in the early 1980's?
Doctor for a population of 300,000 in the Nacala district. Comparing the number of deaths among children admitted to the hospital with the number of children dying in their homes.
How can we control the size instinct?
Comparing and dividing
How significant was the Vietnam War to those who now live in Vietnam?
What examples does Rosling give of how the media tends to get things out of proportion?
Husband killing wife gets no media coverage in comparison to man killed by bear, 31 people died as a result of swine flu, 63,066 died of tuberculosis
What does Rosling mean by the PIN code of the world and what is it?
1-1-1-4 (Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia)
What is the most meaningful way of measuring anything from mobile phone sales to CO2 emissions
Per capita measurement
What group of people are living the safest lives in history and why are they still worried?
People on level 4, because of their media
What does the author mean by a lonely number?
What should the number be compared to. Get things in proportion.
What lie did Rosling come up with about the Danes when invited by locals to a feast?
Rosling said that the Danes eat larvas, while the Swedes do not eat them in order to explain to the locals why he couldn't eat them.
What is one way of overcoming the generalization instinct?
How is not painting the walls a strategic decision made by hospital administration in countries on Level 2 or 3?
Keeps richer patients away who have time-consuming demands for expensive treatments
When did Rosling realise the West would no longer dominate the world for much longer?
1972 in Bangalore. He noted that the 4th year medical students in India knew a lot more than Swedish students in medicine.
What does Dollar Street show?
It shows the living conditions of various levels of income based on basic daily items such as toothbrushes, toilets, sofas, roofs)
What critical advice does Rosling give about 'categories'?
Look for differences within groups and similarities across groups; question the term 'majority' (51 to 99%); beware of exceptional examples; assume you are not 'normal'.
What does the story about the Salhi family with their half-built house in Tunisia tell us?
Assume others are smart. The Salhis are building their house over a long period, constantly investing in material as they can afford only a part at a time.
What was the sweeping generalisation about babies' sleeping position in the 70's in Sweden? What mistake did Rosling make in a supermarket in 1974 as a result of this generalisation?
Babies shouldn't lie on their backs like soldiers as they could suffocate on their own vomit. Turned the baby onto tummy
How does the author summarise factfulness at the end of chapter 6?
Recognising when a category is being used in an explanation and recognising that categories can be misleading
What example of the destiny instinct does the author begin chapter 7 with?
A man claiming that Nigerian culture will never let them make their society modern. Example of a static view at an investors' conference in Edinburgh
What does he compare cultures, nations and religions to?
Rocks. But while rocks do not move, countries, nations, religions and people are in constant transformation.
What does Rosling claim about Africa?
Africa has made huge progress over the last 60 years, reducing child mortality fast.
What country did Rosling use as an example to show fast change in middle-income countries in the 1990's?
Iran which has had fast improvements in health and education ad stopping population growth
What is more telling about the number of babies a woman has: income or religion?
What is often expected of women in Asian cultures?
To look after in-laws and any children
What does Rosling claim about patriarchal values?
Macho values are disappearing also in Asian and African countries with social and economic progress.
What does Rosling suggest doing to realise that things are in fact changing within cultures?
Talk to grandpa, update data and knowledge
What was Rosling's vision for Africa in 2063? What was the chairwoman of the African Union's response?
According to Rosling, Africa would have escaped extreme poverty. But according to her, this was no vision for Africa. Her vision was that Africans would be equal to Europeans. His grandchildren would visit Africa and travel on high speed trains there. But she wanted her grandchildren to be tourists in Europe and not unwanted refugees.
Why do people tend to focus on a single perspective when it comes to understanding the world?
Political and professional ideology (free market, equality, etc.)
How do experts score at Rosling's world knowledge quizzes?
Just as bad as normal people because they are only experts in one field.
What do activists have the tendency to do (whether knowingly or not)
Exaggerate and have a singular perspective
How can we get a better understanding of the world?
We need statistics and numbers, but not numbers alone - observing
Who described their country as the healthiest of the poor? Did Rosling agree?
Cuba's Minister of Health. Rosling thought that Cuba's ideology held it back from making economic progress.
What is the problem with the healthcare system in the USA?
Absence of basic public health insurance, rich insured patients going to doctors too often, running up costs, poor patients can't afford inexpensive treatments and are dying younger than they should.
What does Rosling criticise about the two countries? (Cuba vs USA)
Both are caught in a single-perspective mind-set.
What does Rosling believe is the best way to run a country?
Liberal democracy although evidence does not support this stance as many countries have made enormous progress without being democracies.
What analogy does Rosling refer to in order to control the single perspective instinct?
Hammer and nail, toolbox (No one tool is good for everything, be open to ideas from other Fields)
What example does Rosling use to show that the blame instinct is wrong?
Big pharmaceutical companies like Novartis do most research on rich people's illnesses, not on illnesses that affect the poorest. However, who's to blame? (CEO, board of directors, shareholders, pension funds?)
What do we have to do if we really want to understand the world?
Ignore blame instinct, refuse to find a simple reason or 'the bad guy' to explain why something bad has happened.
How was the small family business based in Lugano able to sell pills for less than the cost of the raw materials?
Was able to gain interest on early payment of medicine as money was sitting in bank account
What does Rosling think of journalists' and filmmakers' world view?
They have the same mega misconceptions as everyone else.
Who or what did Rosling hold responsible for the drownings of refugees in 2015?
Immigration policies made by us, living in Europe. Our immigration policies are responsible for the drownings of refugees.
What statement does Rosling believe is more accurate than "they cannot live like us" when discussing global CO2 emissions?
We cannot live like us: We have to reduce our CO2 emissions instead of telling poorer nations not to use more CO2 as they improve their economies. People on level 4 use by far the most CO2 and have caused the problem by having done so for 100 years.
What could the Pope not fully control?
What goes on inside people's bedrooms
Who does Rosling give credit to in the light of the Ebola epidemic in 2014?
Local health workers and government staff. Institutions are very important for human progress.
What did the washing machine result in for Hans and his mother?
Time to read books. Technology, just like institutions, is an important factor for human progress.
How can we control the blame instinct?
Resist finding a scapegoat. Most problems are more complex than being caused by a single actor. If you want to change the world, you have to understand how it actually works and forget about punching anyone in the face.
What is the point of Rosling's story about the road blocks in Nacala (Mozanbique) due to the outbreak of an unknown disease?
Rushed decisions can be stupid and fatal (lots of people drowned on boats when they tried to avoid the roadblocks)
What does Rosling think about the urgency instinct used by sales peoples and activists?
It prevents us from thinking analytically and tempts us to take drastic actions.
What disagreement did Rosling have with Al Gore and why did he stop working with him?
The disagreement was about which strategy to pursue to inform people about climate change. Gore wanted to scare people with worst-case scenarios, while Rosling preferred to inform in a balanced way, offering not just worst-case predictions, but also probable and best-case lines.
How do we tackle climate change?
By measuring it properly and by people on level 4 reducing their greenhouse gas emissions
What does he criticise about scare-mongering in the climate change debate?
It puts the credibility and reputation of serious climate scientists at risk.
How did Rosling contribute to solving the Ebola virus crisis in Liberia?
By carefully analysing the data and showing that the treatment is working
Which five global risks should we worry about?
Global pandemic, financial collapse, world war III, climate change, extreme poverty
What are his recommendations for how to think about about these? (the five global risks we face)
Take a breath, insist on data, beware of fortune-tellers, be wary of drastic action
What problem did Rosling face when working in Congo (Zaire) in 1989?
A mob of angry villagers threatened him of selling their blood
How did he get saved?
A middle-aged woman reminded the villagers that vaccines had saved many lives and that research is important to find out how to cure diseases.
How can we use factfulness in education?
In education: Children should learn the basic up-to-date, fact-based framework of life on the four levels and the four regions. They should learn to think critically and stop learning stereotypes (in the media). They should learn to be humble and curious and realise how instincts can blur our understanding. Make them aware that the world keeps changing.
How can we use factfulness in business?
Using data to understand the globalised markets helps companies recognize growth opportunities in Asia and Africa
How can journalists, activists, politicians use factfulness?
They should reject a dramatic worldview and set new standards for constructive news based on setting events in historical context. However, as news will always be sensationalist, it is up to us to learn to consume the news more factually.
What is his final message?
A fact-based world-view is more comfortable. It creates less stress and hopelessness than the dramatic worldview which is negative and terrifying. We realise the world is not as bad as it seems and is getting better. We see what we have to do to keep making it better.
In 2010, Mexico received more migrant remittances than any other country. (True or False)
Why does Huck assume Tom Sawyer's identity?
decisions regarding what a clinician will treat are based on the clinician's conclusion about the nature of the patient's communicative impairment. general approaches to treating people with aphasia include consideration of
Ethnographic research involves sending training observers to watch consumers in their natural environment.
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