# WebPath 6 Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis

A 56-year-old reports reduced exercise tolerance over the past 5 years. In the past year he has noted chest pain after ascending a flight of stairs. He smokes 2 packs of cigarettes per day. On examination he has a blood pressure of 155/95 mm Hg. His body mass index is 30. Laboratory findings include a total serum cholesterol of 245 mg/dL with an HDL cholesterol of 22 mg/dL. Which of the following vascular abnormalities is he most likely to have?

A Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis
B Lymphedema
C Medial calcific sclerosis
D Atherosclerosis
E Deep venous thrombosis
F Plexiform arteriopathy
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A 56-year-old reports reduced exercise tolerance over the past 5 years. In the past year he has noted chest pain after ascending a flight of stairs. He smokes 2 packs of cigarettes per day. On examination he has a blood pressure of 155/95 mm Hg. His body mass index is 30. Laboratory findings include a total serum cholesterol of 245 mg/dL with an HDL cholesterol of 22 mg/dL. Which of the following vascular abnormalities is he most likely to have?

A Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis
B Lymphedema
C Medial calcific sclerosis
D Atherosclerosis
E Deep venous thrombosis
F Plexiform arteriopathy
A 54-year-old previously healthy woman is hospitalized for pneumonia. On the 10th hospital day she is found to have swelling and tenderness of her right leg, which has developed over the past 48 hours. Raising the leg elicits pain. An ultrasound examination reveals findings suggestive of femoral vein thrombosis. Which of the following conditions is most likely to have contributed the most to the appearance of these findings?

A Trousseau syndrome
B Protein C deficiency
C Immobilization
D Pregnancy
E Chronic alcohol abuse
F Hypertension
A 63-year-old man has had insulin dependent diabetes mellitus for over two decades. The degree of control of his disease is indicated by the laboratory finding of hemoglobin A1C 10.1%. He has noted episodes of abdominal pain following meals. These episodes have worsened over the past year. On physical examination, there are no masses and no organomegaly of the abdomen, and he has no tenderness to palpation. Which of the following pathologic findings is most likely to be present in this man?

A Ruptured aortic aneurysm
B Hepatic infarction
C Mesenteric artery occlusion
D Acute pancreatitis
E Chronic renal failure
62-year-old man has experienced substernal chest pain upon exertion with increasing frequency over the past 6 months. An electrocardiogram shows features consistent with ischemic heart disease. He has a total serum cholesterol of 262 mg/dL. By angiography, there is 75% narrowing of coronary arteries. In which of the following locations is a mural thrombus most likely to occur in this man?

A Left atrium
B Left ventricle
C Right atrium
D Right ventricle
E Aorta
F Vena cava
(B) The left ventricle is the major user of oxygen and nutrients and requires a good blood supply. A complication of ischemic heart disease with infarction is development of overlying mural thrombus. Such mural thrombi are likely to result from damage to the left ventricle from ischemic heart disease, either acutely with an underlying myocardial infarction, or with a left ventricular aneurysm formed following resolution of a large myocardial infarction
A 66-year-old man with Parkinson disease develops pleuritic chest pain. On exam, he has guarding over the right lower lung with dullness to percussion. A chest CT scan shows a focal, wedge-shaped pleural baesed area of hemorrhage in the right lower lobe. Which of the following is the most likely cause for his pulmonary lesion?

A Embolism
B Atherosclerosis
C Vasculitis
D Arteriolosclerosis
E Thrombosis
(A) A pulmonary infarction is described. A thromboembolus from the venous circulation, usually arising in large leg veins, has lodged in a peripheral pulmonary arterial branch. The bronchial arterial supply to the lung does not provide enough oxygenation to prevent infarction, but does provide blood to make the infarct hemorrhagic. His neurodegenerative disorder with reduced movement is a risk for phlebothrombosis.
A 44-year-old woman has a family history of heart disease. Her father and mother both developed myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure as a result of occlusive coronary atherosclerosis. A dietary modification to include consumption of which of the following is most likely to reduce her risk for ischemic heart disease?

A 40% of total caloric intake as fat
B Increased saturated fat
C Foods with cholesterol
D Cold water fish oil
E Fat found in beef products
F Hydrogenated oils with trans-fats
A study of atherogenesis is performed. There is a propensity for atheromas to form at muscular arterial branch points, such as the carotid and aortic bifurcations. Which of the following events in the arteries at these locations is most likely to initiate atherogenesis?

A Collagen synthesis
B Endothelial dysfunction
C Lactic acidosis
D Cholesterol breakdown
E Hypoxemia
A 66-year-old woman has the sudden loss of movement on part of the left side of her body. She has smoked a pack of cigarettes a day for the past 45 years. She has vital signs including T 37.1°C, P 80/minute, RR 16/minute, and BP 160/100 mm Hg. A cerebral angiogram reveals occlusion of a branch of her middle cerebral artery. Laboratory findings include a hemoglobin A1C of 9%. Which of the following components of blood lipids is most important in contributing to her disease?

A Chylomicrons
B Lipoprotein lipase
C Oxidized LDL
D VLDL
E HDL cholesterol
(C) She has had a 'stroke' which is most often a consequence of cerebral atherosclerosis or embolic disease from the heart as a consequence of ischemic heart disease from atherosclerosis. LDL brings cholesterol to arterial walls, and when increased LDL is present or when there is hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, there is more degradation of LDL to oxidized LDL which is taken up into arterial walls via scavenger receptors in macrophages to help form atheromas.
An autopsy study reveals that evidence for atheroma formation can begin even in children. The gross appearances of the aortas are recorded and compared with microscopic findings of atheroma formation. Which of the following is most likely to be the first visible gross evidence for the formation of an atheroma?

A Thrombus
B Fatty streak
C Calcification
D Hemorrhage
E Exudate
F Ulceration
A 63-year-old man has had increasing exercise intolerance for the past 6 years so that he now becomes short of breath upon climbing a single flight of stairs. Laboratory studies have shown fasting blood glucose measurements from 145 to 210 mg/dL for the past 25 years, but he has not sought medical treatment. If he dies suddenly, which of the following is most likely to be the immediate cause of death?

A Myocardial infarction
B Nodular glomerulosclerosis
C Cerebral hemorrhage
D Hyperosmolar coma
E Right lower leg gangrene