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Terms in this set (91)
BF Skinner - individuals learn language as a direct response to stimuli.
Considered to be overly simplistic
Noam Chomsky - individuals are born with a universal wired into their brains
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky - the difference between what a person knows and what he could know if given assistance from someone else -- scaffolding, modeling, cues, encouragement.
Socio-cultural theory of language learning
Jim Cummins - Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills - basic expressions and linguistic formations that an individual would need to conduct himself in normal situations
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency - ability to read, write, listen, speak on grade level - takes 5 to 7 years - ability to participate in formal and grammatically correct discourse
CUP - Common Underlying Proficiency - incorporation of ideas and skills learned in their first language
Languages are constantly evolving to meet the needs of its speakers.
a version of a language that is used by a particular group of people -- idiosyncratic vocabulary
the form of a language that is appropriate to a given situation - classroom form v. informal form.
Comprehensive language instruction should incorporate opportunities for both formal and informal commuication
any non-standard form of language -- known for being ephemeral (does not last long)
method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness
Development of Phonics Knowledge
1) Logographic phase - sight words - teachers will label classroom
2) Analytic Phase - students pay closer attention to the components of words - rhyming words, teachers will create word families
3) Orthographic Phase - students have acquired almost all the tools required to sound out familiar and unfamiliar words - this coincides with the development of large sight vocabulary
1) Pre-phonetic to phonetic
2) Transitional Stage
3) Conventional stage - must be a fluent reader with excellent comprehension skills
The way a language sounds.
Phoneme = the smallest distinguishable unit of sound that can hold a meaning in language
the most basic prerequisite for literacy.
The understanding that words are made up of individual speech sounds.
Phonemic Awareness v. Phonics
Phonics requires the presence of print. Phonics is the direct correspondence between letters and sounds.
Phonemic Awareness precedes phonics instruction.
Phonics depends on the alphabetic principle.
All kindergartners must develop phonemic awareness before learning to read.
Phonemes and graphemes
GRAPHEMES are individual letters and groups of letters that represent single phonemes, like the "s" and the "oo" in "spoon". Understanding how letters are used to encode speech sounds in written language is crucial in learning to decode unfamiliar words.
Graphemes represent phonemes.
LETTERS are the visual building blocks of written words. When we say the letters in a word, as in C (see) A (ay) T (tee), we are describing the way the word looks, not the way it sounds. Irregular words contain unusual relationsips between letters and phonemes (e.g. "who"), making them more difficult to read and spell.
Consonants and vowels
Phonemes can be either consonants or vowels
The system by which words are constructed out of letters.
Morpheme= the smallest meaningful unit of grammar or syntax
Nonperishable is comprised of three morphemes: non-, perish, and -able. It actually has five syllables though, which is a good example of why morphemes and syllables are not synonymous.
non- is an example of a prefix, or a morpheme that precedes a base morpheme
perish is an example of a base morpheme, as it gives the word its essential meaning
-able is an example of a suffix, or a morpheme that follows a base morpheme
the basic set of linguistic rules that must be followed in order for linguistic expressions to be understood.
Grammar is different because grammar offers recommendations for proper syntax, whereas syntax is the collection of proper and improper grammar.
The study of sounds made during human speech.
Phonetics is different than phonology because it deals with sounds without any concern for semantics. Phonetics is production, phonology is interpretation.
the meanings of words.
denotations and connotations
denotation- what the word refers to
connotation - set of judgments and references associated with the word
the system by which language is used in social situations.
"Will you go out with me?"
a combination of two or more consonants into a single sound
a single but shifting sound made by the combination of two or more vowels -- a gliding vowel sound.
Example - boil - boy- ull
a group of two or more letters that create a sound different from the individual sound of the letters -- sh, ph, ch
Onsets and rimes
The sound that initiates the phoneme is the onset, the vowel and any consonant after the vowel is the rime.
Beginning, end, and medial phonemes
bully--> b = beginning, u and l= medial, y = end
Skills associated with phonemic awareness
Phonemic awareness is demonstrated by the performance of six tasks: 1) sound matching, 2)sound isolation, 3) sound blending, 4) sound substitution, 5) sound deletion, 6) sound segmentation
Sheltered English v. ESL
In Sheltered instruction,the goal is mastery of the content area. In ESL, the focus is the development of English skills. They both emphasize the implementation of metacognitive strategies.
Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English- students acquire language skills almost involuntarily as they go through the process of learning course content.
Krashen's Input Hypthesis
The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language - how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'.
Krashen's Monitor Hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis involves the acquisition center being monitored by the learning system. So the acquisition center would produce language and what the student is/has been learning will allow the student to monitor output. If the output matches, then no problem, but if the language produced is not correct, then the monitoring of the learning system will help correct the acquisition center.
students generalize rules through practice and experience with English
the shared language of a community of speakers. Code-switching is the process by which individuals shift or formality of their speech in order to convey hierarchy, bonding, or some other interpersonal relationship
School culture v. student's native culture
A teacher's role is to underscore the differences between cultures without passing judgment or stigmatizing either.
Structural considerations for a multicultural classroom
Too many school districts have ethnocentric curricula that alienate ELL students. It is essential that the teacher choose a curriculum that meets the needs of a multicultural classroom.
1) Name letters, both uppercase and lowercase.
2) Model the sounds of the letters (you don't have to explore the different sounds a letter can make yet)
3) Discuss the difference between consonants and vowels (vowels are spoken indefinitely, consonants can be spoken in staccato bursts)
Three letter words, basic digraphs, consonant blends
CVC, simple words with the digraphs sh, ch, th, then some simple words with consonant blends to help accelerate pronunciation.
Long vowel sounds and multisyllabic words
first focus on words like row and mate.
Then look at dipthongs and other irregular vowel formations.
R and L controlled vowels like car, walk, and bird (discuss these but it is not necessary to give an entire linguistic explanation)
Start to explore basic multisyllabic words
Synthetic and analytic phonics instruction
Synthetic: activities that require students to make words out of disparate sounds.
Analytic: students break down words into their component sounds.
Phonics activity 1 (Synthetic)
Students are given cards printed with letters, digraphs, and blends and are asked to create short words. Teacher would write the rime at the board and students would tape it up, etc.
Phonics activity 2 (Synthetic)
Teacher writes letter on board and students have to name objects in class that begin with that letter. Any activity that encourages students to consider the initial sound of a word is a reinforcement of a phonics skill
Phonics activity 3 (Analytic)
Students underline all the appearances of a given letter, blend or digraph in a text. Teacher will then read aloud the text and point out the words as they are pronounced.
Advanced phonics activity 4 (Analytic)
Teacher writes several sentences on the board each of which containing the same consonant sound underlined. Students will write the consonant next to the sentence with that sound
Word Sort (Analytic phonics)
Students are given cards on which short words have been printed. They have to organize the cards according to the same criterion. Example - all cards with a sh digraph are organized together
students put sounds together to make a written word. Example - student writes down words as teacher says them (traditional spelling test). This is good for detecting basic phonics problems
It is hard to perform decoding activities in a large class setting, therefore most decoding is on on an individual basis.
Students read words aloud - words that isolate certain letters, some nonsense words like gop, bam, rud (this is debated among linguistic experts.
During readings, teachers make informal assessments-- class assn, hw, discussion questions, 1 on 1 discussion
Theoretical Orientation to reading instruction
Approach to reading instruction can take three forms: phonics approach, skills/balanced approach, whole language approach
emphasis on the relationship between sound and comprehension.
Start out with the basic units of spoken language, phonemes.
Gradually increases complexity to include word inits, phrases and sentences.
Lots of focus on sounds and letters
Focus on sight words for words that cannot be decoded
give students a set of tools with which to make sense of simple texts
students will read authentic texts quicker than students who learn within a phonics based approach
This approach relies on building a large vocabulary of words that can be recognized on sight, with less priority on developing phonics skills
Teacher will give students skills in recognizing roots, prefixes, suffixes or configuration.
Students will be able to recognize a word from context
teachers concentrate on the basic functions of language.
reading children's literature texts
strong emphasis on communication skills
students develop their own stories
phonics and word attack skills can be incorporated into the general reading experience
Admissions Review Development committee is composed of teachers, parents, counselors, school administrators. One of their tasks is to create an IEP for the student.
PQ: Scientifically based quality classroom instruction
involves teaching essential skills, differentiating instruction, organizing instruction systematically, presenting meaningful reading and writing experiences for students to practice strategies, and reviewing an reteaching as required.
PQ:Is acculturation or assimilation more likely to produce second language learners who are successful at both BICS and CALP?
Acculturation- adapting to a new culture which includes understanding cultural expectations, semiotics, values, beliefs, is essential to second language learning because it provides appropriate context. It allows ELLS to adopt to new culture without losing their old one.
PQ: What is a predicate nominative?
A predicate nominative is a noun or noun phrase that clarifies the subject. usually follows a linking verb or verb phrase like is are were or has been. Example: That tiny red car is a smart car
PQ: The primary approach to teaching non-native speakers prior to 1960 was
PQ: Lau v. Nichols (1974)
established that school districts must provide ELLs the tools they need to understand instruction.
PQ: How can a teacher best simplify a text for ELLs at the beginning and intermediate levels?
shorten the text, abbreviate sentences, substitute simple, concrete language for more complex language, break complex sentences into two or three more direct sentences. Beginning/Intemediate ELLs will be better able to understand complex ideas if they are presented in the context of a language they can understand.
PQ: How are traditional ESL programs and content based ESL Curriculum (CBEC) different?
Traditional ESL programs prioritize social language skills. CBEC offers instruction in content areas that is age appropriate to the ELLs mainstream peers.
PQ: What is Krashen's Monitor Hypthesis concerned with?
The ways in which language learning influences acquisition. Acquisition is the utterance initiator and learning is the monitor/editor
PQ: An approach to learning that begins with practical communicative usage and that over time incorporates grammar, vocabulary, phonemic awareness, etc.
PQ: Second Language acquisition research suggests that L2s to integrate formulaic expressions and then apply them to understand linguistic rules. True or False?
PQ: What is a possible outcome when teachers interpret oral language proficiency, such as the Language Assessment Scales-Oral, the Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey, and the IDEA Proficiency Test in terms of a ELL's general scholastic performance?
The student is more likely to be placed in a special education program.
Oral language indicators must not be used as an overall indicator of a student's academic performance.
PQ: Cummins' Common Underlying Proficency Theory holds that using one language encourages proficiency in both L1 and L2. What is the opposing theory?
Separate Underlying Proficiency -- no relationship between L1 and L2 exists, because each language is retained by a distinct area of the brain that is in no way connected to an area reserved for another language. Currently this theory is disregarded.
In language acquisition, what is STAGE II called?
Early Production Stage
Stages of language acquistion
2) Early production
3) Speech emergence
4) Nearly fluent
1) Main idea
2) Identify details, events, and causal relationships
3) Inferential comprehension
4) Evaluative Comprehension -Detecting Propaganda , recognition of fact or opinion
Natural Order Hypothesis (Krashen)
writing will lag behind oral proficiency
Writing Activities that improve reading comprehension
Summarizing, outlining, responding
Dialogue, double-entry, reader response, and personal
History of bilingual education
Cuban immigrants in the 1960s established successful bilingual programs. Then the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s guaranteed federal funds for biligual education.
Bilingual Education Act of 1968 - promoted the idea that non-English speakers be instructed in English but should be allowed to maintain other distinctive aspects of their heritage.
Castaneda v Pickard (1981)
Bilingual Programs must be based on sound educational theory and be implemented effectively
No Child Left Behind
effectively terminated the Bilingual Education Act - did away with native language programs and mandated that students be tested in Englsih annually
seeks to improve skills in both the first language and English
examines how speakers' linguistic understanding depends upon external contact - inferences, spatial relationships, facial expressions, idioms, etc.
Stages of Language Acquisition
1) Pre-production 2) early production (single word answers yes/no) 3) speech emergence 4)intermediate fluency
How are language acquisition and language learning distinct?
Language acquisition develops unconsciously through use, while language learning requires intruction.
Krashen - learning of rules helps polish speech.
Most language experts agree that grammar rules will eventually be learned subconsciously but the Monitor hypothesis says it can be helpful to learn rules as part of scond language training
concrete objects used in demonstrations to develop vocabulary and encourage discourse
Canale and Swain
Competence in grammar, sociolinguistics, discourse, communication strategies.
Strategies to develop calp
asking "what if" questions
teaching test taking and study skills
Early Production Stage
student uderstands and uses roughly 1,000 words.
this stage lasts approximately six months beyond the pre-production stage.
students can use 1,000 words in one to two word phrases
The Silent/Receptive Stage (pre-production)
brief stage lasting only a few months in which language learners develop a bank of approx. 500 words that they understand but do not use verbally.
Cummin's Threshold Hypothesis
a higher proficiency theshold in the first language is a core contributor to the learner's acquisition in a second language
CALP requires . . .
specialized vocabulary for specific content areas and the ability to apply abstract concepts
scaffolding provides a student with a combination of strategies to support independent learning -- hands on activities, visual aids, modeling
reading assessment tool that allows teacher to evaluate deviations from the actual texts that students make during an oral reader. It can allow teachers to see how students decode and process printed words and use them to construct meaning
building context from book to book
students can infer the meaning of unfamiliar terms if they know the characters (a series book)
New York State English Language Arts Standards
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