Terms in this set (77)
sth is not deliberately intended
1. it has enough room for them.
2. provide them with a place to live or stay.
3. it takes this situation into account.
4. the main purpose of pleasing or satisfying them.
5. change your behavior or ideas so that you are able to deal with it.
1. accept or admit that it is true or that it exists.
2. they are known about and recognized by a lot of people, or by a particular group of people.
3. you write to the person who sent it in order to say that you have received it.
4. for example by moving your head or smiling, you show that you have seen and recognized them.
5. you make a gesture in order to thank them or show your appreciation.
1. a statement or action which recognizes that something exists or is true.
2. the section in a book that the author thanks all the people who have helped him or her.
3. such as a smile, shows someone that you have seen and recognized them.
4. a published statement in which you express your gratitude for or appreciation of something.
5. a letter or message that you receive from someone, telling you that something you have sent to them has arrived.
1. they buy another company or part of a company.
2. you buy or obtain something, often to add to things that you already have.
3. the process of learning or developing a particular type of knowledge.
1. you give a speech to them.
2. you call them that name or title when you talk or write to them. e.g., Sir
3. you try to understand a problem or deal with it.
1. a small change that is made to something such as a machine or a way of doing something.
2. a change in a person's behavior or thinking.
beauty or art, and people's appreciation of beautiful things.
1. Anecdotal evidence is based on individual accounts, rather than on reliable research or statistics, and so may not be valid.
2. ≈ entertaining
1. something is its exact opposite
2. there is a contrast between them
1. the information you are giving is something that you have heard, but you are not certain that it is true.
2. something that seems to be true, although you are not sure whether it is or not.
When you apportion something such as blame, you decide how much of it different people deserve or should be given.
you consider them carefully and form an opinion about them.
1. you get closer to it
2. a road, path, or other route that leads to it.
3. you speak to them about it for the first time, often making an offer or request.
4. you deal with or think about a task, problem, or situation in a particular way.
5. As a future time or event approaches, it gradually gets nearer as time passes.
6. If something approaches a particular level or state, it almost reaches that level or state.
1. a fact, object, or description which is similar to something else, but which is not exactly the same.
2. a number, calculation, or position that is close to a correct number, time, or position, but is not exact.
1. An apt remark, description, or choice is especially suitable.
2. If someone is apt to do something, they often do it and so it is likely that they will do it again.
the design and construction of buildings.
you state it and give the reasons why you think it is true.
1. activities such as music, painting, literature, cinema, and dance, which people can take part in for enjoyment, or to create works which express serious meanings or ideas of beauty.
An artifact is an ornament, tool, or other object that is made by a human being, especially one that is historically or culturally interesting.
1. one of the parts of its character or nature
3. appearance or quality
1. you consider sth in order to make a judgment about them.
2. you calculate or estimate sth if it is worth or should be paid
1. imagine that sth is true, sometimes wrongly.
2. 掌管，夺取，取得（权力）；承担（责任) If someone assumes power or responsibility, they take power or responsibility.
3. 呈现，具有，显露（某种特质） If something assumes a particular quality, it begins to have that quality.
to take for granted; to suppose.
4. 表现出（某种表情）；装出，做出（某种样子）If you assume a particular expression or way of behaving, you start to look or behave in this way.
1. 假定;假设;臆断 If you make an assumption that something is true or will happen, you accept that it is true or will happen, often without any real proof.
2. （权力的）取得；（责任的）承担 Someone's assumption of power or responsibility is their taking of it.
1. （通常指经过努力）获得，达到 If you attain something, you gain it or achieve it, often after a lot of effort.
2. 达到，进入，实现（某种状态或情况） If you attain a particular state or condition, you may reach it as a result of natural development or work hard to attain this state.
1. to tune
2. to bring into harmony or agreement
1. 鉴别;鉴定 If you authenticate something, you state officially that it is genuine after examining it.
2. 证明...是真的 If you authenticate something, you prove or confirm that it is true.
批准；授权: official permission or power to do sth; the act of giving permission
the state of being able to be obtained or used
v. 困扰；烦扰；使苦恼 If someone or something is beset by problems or fears, they have many problems or fears which affect them severely.
1. n./v. 经济的）繁荣，景气increase in economic activity
2. n.（数量的）增长；（频率的）加快；成功 A boom in something is an increase in its amount, frequency, or success.
3. n. (船帆的）下桁；to alter the direction in which you are sailing
4. v. （人)吼叫；（大炮或大鼓）发隆隆声 When something such as someone's voice, a cannon, or a big drum booms, it makes a loud, deep sound that lasts for several seconds.
1. n. 边界；边疆；边界地区 The border between two countries or regions is the dividing line between them. Sometimes the border also refers to the land close to this line.
2. v. 和...毗邻；与...接壤 A country that borders another country, a sea, or a river is next to it.
3. n. 镶边, 包边; （花园边上的）狭长花坛，花带
4. v. 形成...的边界；环绕；毗连 If something is bordered by another thing, the other thing forms a line along the edge of it.
adj. 熟练的;胜任的;有能力的 Someone who is capable has the skill or qualities necessary to do a particular thing well, or is able to do most things well.
1. n. 电视台;电视频道 A channel is a television station.
3. v. 将(资金或资源)专门用于 If you channel money or resources into something, you arrange for them to be used for that thing, rather than for a wider range of things.
4. v. 将(精力或情感)专注于;集中 If you channel your energies or emotions into something, you concentrate on or do that one thing, rather than a range of things.
1. adj./ adv. (品质、特点)明显的，显著的，典型的 A quality or feature that is characteristic of someone or something is one which is often seen in them and seems typical of them.
2. n. 特色;特点;特征 The characteristics of a person or thing are the qualities or features that belong to them and make them recognizable.
n. 人物塑造;人物刻画 Characterization is the way an author or an actor describes or shows what a character is like.
1. n. 制图；记录表格；图表
2. v. 绘制...的海图；用图表表示；制订计划（chart的ing形式）
1. v. 声称;断言 If you say that someone claims that something is true, you mean they say that it is true but you are not sure whether or not they are telling the truth.
2. v. 索取，索要(有权拥有的东西) If you claim something, you try to get it because you think you have a right to it.
3. n. 主张;要求 A claim is a demand for something that you think you have a right to.
4. n. 权利;要求权 If you have a 【claim on】someone or their attention, you have the right to demand things from them or to demand their attention.
5. v. (向雇主)索要，索取，讨要(钱、福利) 【claim money or other benefits】 from your employers
6. v. (战争、疾病、事故)夺去(生命)，导致(死亡) If you say that a war, disease, or accident 【claims someone's life】, you mean that they are killed in it or by it.
7. phrase v. 成名之举；成名之作 Someone's 【claim to fame】 is something quite important or interesting that they have done or that is connected with them.
8. phrase v. 声称拥有 If you 【lay claim to】 something you do not have, you say that it belongs to you.
adj. 神职人员的; 文职人员的
1. adj./ adv. （思想、行为）非常符合逻辑的，不带感情的 You use clinical to describe thought or behaviour which is very logical and does not involve any emotion.
2. adj. 临床的 Clinical means involving or relating to the direct medical treatment or testing of patients.
adj. 同时共存的,同时代的 existing at the same time
同义词： synchronous, synchronic
adv. happening at the same time
1. v. 赞扬; 推荐; 被接受（ If something commends itself to you, you approve of it.）
2. phrase v. 令人称道/乏善可陈 If you say that something 【has much to commend it】, you approve of it. If you say that something 【has little to commend it】, you disapprove of it.
1. v. 犯罪
2. v. 拨出，调配(资金、资源等) If you commit money or resources to something, you decide to use them for a particular purpose.
3. v. 承诺，保证(做);忠于(某人) If you 【commit yourself to something】, you say that you will definitely do it. If you commit yourself to someone, you decide that you want to have a long-term relationship with them.
4. v. 明确表态 If you do not want to 【commit yourself on】something
5. v. 把...正式送进(医院、监狱等) If someone 【is committed to】a hospital, prison, or other institution.
6. v. 把...写下来;把...记住 If you 【commit something to paper or to writing】, you record it by writing it down. If you 【commit something to memory】, you learn it so that you will remember it.
7. v. (英国)把...提交高等刑事法庭 In the British legal system, if someone is 【committed for trial】
1. adj./adv. 能胜任的;称职的 Someone who is competent is efficient and effective
2. adj./adv. ...能力的;能干的 If you are competent to do something, you have the skills, abilities, or experience necessary to do it well.
1. adj./adv. 复杂的;错综的 Something that is complex has many different parts, and is therefore often difficult to understand.
2. adj. 错综复杂的组合;复合体 A 【complex of】things is a group or system of things that are connected with each other in a complicated way.
3. n. 综合建筑群;综合大楼
4. n. (通常指由于过去不愉快的经历而形成的)情结 If someone 【has a complex about】something, they have a mental or emotional problem relating to it, often because of an unpleasant experience in the past.
v. 包括;由...组成 If you say that something comprises or【is comprised of】a number of things or people, you mean it has them as its parts or members.
1. 可数n. 概念;观念;想法 A【conception of】something is an idea that you have of it in your mind.
2. 不可数n. 构想;构思;设想 Conception is the forming of an idea for something in your mind.
3. n. 受孕;怀孕
adj. 概念的;观念的 Conceptual means related to ideas and concepts formed in the mind.
1. n. 结论;推论 When you come to a conclusion, you decide that something is true after you have thought about it carefully and have considered all the relevant facts.
2. n. 结束;末尾 ending
3. n. 缔结;签订 The conclusion of a treaty or a business deal is the act of arranging it or agreeing it.
4. phrase v. 必然会发生的事;事先料定的结局 You can refer to something that seems certain to happen as 【a foregone conclusion】
5. phrase v. 最后;总而言之
6. phrase v. 匆忙地下判断;草率地下结论 If you say that someone 【jumps to a conclusion】, you are critical of them because they decide too quickly that something is true, when they do not know all the facts.
1. adj. 有条件的;有前提的 If a situation or agreement is 【conditional on】something, it will only happen or continue if this thing happens.
1. 可数n. 安排;格局;布局 A configuration is an arrangement of a group of things.
2. 不可数n. 配置 The configuration of a computer system is way in which all its parts, such as the hardware and software, are connected together in order for the computer to work.
1. n. 边界;界限;范围 Something that is within the【confines of】an area or place is within the boundaries enclosing it.
2. v. 监禁;关押；禁闭 If someone 【is confined to】a mental institution, prison, or other place, they are sent there and are not allowed to leave for a period of time.
3. v. 限制
n. 对抗;冲突;战斗;战役 A confrontation is a dispute, fight, or battle between two groups of people.
adj. /adv. 友善的;宜人的;惬意的 A congenial person, place, or environment is pleasant.
adv. 所以;结果 Consequently means as a result.
adv. 相当, 非常,
v. 把...置于;打发 To 【consign something or someone to】 a place where they will be forgotten about, or【 to】an unpleasant situation or place, means to put them there.
1. v-link. 被视为;可算作 If something constitutes a particular thing, it can be regarded as being that thing.
2. v-link. 构成;组成 If a number of things or people constitute something, they are the parts or members that form it
3. v. 设立，成立(委员会、政府等) When something such as a committee or government is constituted, it is formally established and given authority to operate.
1. n. (一国的)宪法;(组织的)章程 The constitution of a country or organization is the system of laws which formally states people's rights and duties.
2. 可数n. 体质;体格 Your constitution is your health.
1. v. 建筑，建造
2. v. 构想，构思(思想、作品、体系等） If you construct something such as an idea, a piece of writing, or a system, you create it by putting different parts together.
3. n. 复杂的构想(或思想);观念;
4. n. 建筑物;建造物;创造物
2. n. (对某人言行的)解释，理解，阐释 The construction that you put on what someone says or does is your interpretation of what it means.
1. v. (使)沉溺，(使)沉迷，(使)充满(感情或思想) If a feeling or idea consumes you, it affects you very strongly indeed.
2. v. (火)烧毁，吞没，吞噬 If a fire consumes a building, it completely destroys it.
3. v. 消耗，耗费(燃料、能源或时间) To consume an amount of fuel, energy, or time means to use it up.
4. v. 吃;喝;饮用 If you consume something, you eat or drink it.
1. v. 考虑;思量 If you contemplate an action, you think about whether to do it or not.
2. v. 深思熟虑;沉思;苦思冥想 If you contemplate an idea or subject, you think about it carefully for a long time.
3. v. 凝视;注视 If you contemplate something or someone, you look at them for a long time.
1. adj. 同时发生的;同时期的;同时代的 Contemporary people or things were alive or happened at the same time as something else you are talking about.
2. n. 同时期的人;同时代的人 Someone's contemporary is a person who is or was alive at the same time as them.
3. adj. / adv. 当代的;现代的 Contemporary things are modern and relate to the present time.
1. v. 处理;对付;解决 If you have to 【contend with a problem or difficulty】, you have to deal with it or overcome it.
2. v. 声称;争辩;主张 If you contend that something is true, you state or argue that it is true.
3. v. 竞争;争夺 If you 【contend with someone for something】such as power, you compete with them to try to get it.
1. adj./adv. 有争议的;引起争论的 A contentious issue causes a lot of disagreement or arguments.
2. adj./adv. 爱争论的;动辄争吵的 A contentious person seems to like arguing and disagreeing with other people.
【in contravention of】
v. 使成为惯例, 使习俗化, 使样式化
e.g., conventionalized behavior
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