Population & urbanization

demography the study of the size, composition, growth (or shrinkage), and distribution of human populations
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Terms in this set (34)
demographic transition a three-stage historical process of change in the size of populations: first, high birth rates and high death rates; second, high birth rates and low death rates; and third, low birth rates and low death rates; a fourth stage of population shrinkage in which deaths outnumber births has made its appearance in the Most Industrialized Nations
crude death rate the annual number of deaths per 1,000 populationnet migration rate the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 populationbasic demographic equation the growth rate equals births minus deaths plus net migrationgrowth rate the net change in a population after adding births, subtracting deaths, and either adding or subtracting net migration; can result in a negative numberzero population growth women bearing only enough children to reproduce the populationcity a place in which a large number of people are permanently based and do not produce their own foodurbanization the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities and has a growing influence on the culturemetropolis a central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbsmegalopolis an urban area consisting of at least two metropolises and their many suburbsmegacity a city of 10 million or more residentsmegaregion a merging of megacities and nearby populated areas into an even larger mass of peoplemetropolitan statistical area (MSA) a central city and the urbanized counties adjacent to itedge city a large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections that provides a sense of place to people who live, shop, and work theregentrification middle-class people moving into a rundown area of a city, displacing the poor as they buy and restore homessuburbanization the migration of people from the city to the suburbssuburb a community adjacent to a cityhuman ecology Robert Park's term for the relationship between people and their environment (such as land and structures); also known as urban ecologyinvasion-succession cycle the process of one group of people displacing another group whose racial-ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their ownalienation Marx's term for workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by workers being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product, which leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness; others use the term in the general sense of not feeling a part of somethingredlining a decision by the officers of a financial institution not to make loans in a particular areadisinvestment the withdrawal of investments by financial institutions, which seals the fate of an urban areadeindustrialization the process of industries moving out of a country or regionurban renewal the rehabilitation of a rundown area, which usually results in the displacement of the poor who are living in that areaenterprise zone the use of economic incentives in a designated area to encourage investment