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AP Psychology Test #1
Terms in this set (64)
Socrates and Plato
Believed that intelligence is predisposed and cannot be learned
we learn through experience
nerves connect to the mind and body
we try to find patterns where they do not exist
Tabula Rosa - mind is a blank slate written on by experiences
"the rat is always right"
we simply observe, so whatever the subject does CANNOT be wrong
anything an organism does, any action we can observe and record
internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
passion to explore and understand
questioning results and retesting
understanding human's limitations and the possibility of error
psychology becomes a science
established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany in 1879
Student of Wilhelm Wundt; founder of Structuralist school of psychology.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
first journal was published with psychological research
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food.
the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Nature vs. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
Mary Whiton Calkins
First female president of the APA
Margaret Floy Washburn
First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd female president of the APA (1921)
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
One of the first psychologists to focus on child development and on women's issues
Draws from different disciplines in order to understand organizations from multiple perspectives and viewpoints.
Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking.
the study of neurons
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior and mental processes
study of the mental processes of each individual gender
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
branch of medicine that deals with emotional disturbances
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it; "i knew it all along"
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
Perceive order in random events
dice or spinning quarters; seeing patterns where they aren't there
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Scientific explanations are provisional, subject to revision or rejection based on new data and results in the self correcting nature of science.
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
factors that underlie the behavior of all humans
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
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