- The British East India Company established itself in India in the early 1600s to be a part of the Indian spice trade. Over time, India started to exude more control over India through political/economic dominance. For example, India became reliant on cotton in the economy because Britain needed lots of cotton to feed their machines.
- China had profitable revenue streams because of the huge amounts of exports such as porcelain, silk, and tea. These goods were imported in large quantities by Britain. However, this deal of Britain not exporting many products led to their economy suffering some deficits. To combat this they made India grow opium, a highly addictive drug. Opium was smuggled into China selling it to the Chinese. The more people became addicted, the more money Britain made. Unfortunately, the trading of opium was made illegal in 1729 for the Chinese. However, since much of the population was already addicted to opium, the ban made little difference. Eventually, a revolt started between the citizens of China and the British for the abusive situation the British had the Chinese in. This led to the opium wars, which started in 1839 when China tried to overtake Britain but was unsuccessful. China was not taken over politically, but economically. This was done because Britain opened additional ports for trade and required a free trade agreement.
- The free trade agreement was utilized by many different countries, and China was split into spheres of influence. The countries involved included Japan, France, Germany, Russia, and the US.
- Demand for labor in cash crop plantations greatly increased because factories needed more and more raw materials to supply them. Unfortunately, a majority of their labor was slave labor. Abolitionist movements were mostly successful at this time. However, the demand for labor was still present, so many people from all over the world migrated to places to find work for very low wages or indentured servitude.
Labor is still coerced/exploitative, even though slavery is on its way out.
- Indentured servitude usually involved poor laborers, and it was an agreement that allowed workers to work for a certain number of years, in exchange for passage to the new world. Many of these migrants influenced the areas they were migrating to. The British planned
- Contract labor was the replacement of the slave trade after 1806. The British planned to bring in Chinese and Indian workers, who would work for very low wages and do the tasks of former slaves, such as work on sugar cane fields. After a long time of mistreatment, laws were passed that allowed Chinese and Indian workers who participated in this system to be treated better.
- A penal colony, or a colony for hard labor to be done by prisoners/convicts, such as Australia. Once their sentences were up, they would return to Britain. Some people were sent to these colonies after signing a contract without reading it thoroughly.
- When different peoples moved to different parts of the world they brought their culture with them, these groups of people would often be grouped together to form an ethnic enclave. Oftentimes if there were enough people in one enclave, the receiving society would be influenced by this culture's presence.
- The Chinese enclave influenced others by some Chinese holding positions of power in Southeast Asia. They also ran opium farms in Malaysia, which were very profitable. The Chinese eventually came to the Americas during the California Gold Rush, where they would work by mining gold. Eventually, they became an integral part of building the Trans-Continental Railroad.
- The Indian Enclave mainly took old in Britain and worked in indentured servitude. Some moved to Mauritius and worked on sugar plantations, while those who moved to Natal built railroads. Many of these migrating workers were Hindus and brought their religious norms such as the Caste System. However, this system was eventually abandoned. Their culture was still kept alive through the use of home shrines and prayers to their gods.
- Many Indians moved to SouthEast Asia, they initially worked as indentured servants, but eventually, this was replaced by a system called Kangana. This system involved sending whole families to work on plantations, this helped to give new freedoms to those who migrated to new places.
- Irish immigrants mainly migrated to America in search of work after the Great Potato Famine. Many settled in urban areas and took up low wage factory jobs and public works. They were also known to live in poorly constructed tenement buildings. This group of people faced much scrutiny and anti-immigrant sentiments from the Americans due to the abundance of people looking for work and Catholicism ideas. Eventually, this enclave assimilated into American society and faced less scrutiny as the generations progressed. This allowed for Irish culture to be more widespread and accepted. This enclave was also very helpful in fighting for worker's rights after they banned together to form labor unions. Plus the spread of Catholicism was tied back to the Irish.
- Italian immigrants came in large numbers to the US and faced similar treatment as the Irish did. However, many Italian immigrants migrated to Argentina because the Argentine Constitution promised that European immigrants would be given similar rights to that of Argentine citizens. This led to Argentinian Spanish adopting many words in the Italian language.
The distaste for immigrants, except for Argentina, came down to how the immigrants were okay to work for lower wages than the natives of the country. This meant that jobs mainly went to the immigrants. Some of this sentiment transitioned into laws/movements.
- The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was a law passed by Congress that banned the immigration of the Chinese. This was a big deal because a law such as this had never been instituted in previous years. The British had a similar act in the 1850s when lots of Chinese immigrants flocked to Australia during the Gold Rush, the British later imposed quotas for how many Chinese immigrants were allowed into Australia, this was known as the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885. Interestingly, Chinese immigration to Australia was declining at this time, but their presence was felt because many moved to urban areas.