- Work activities.
First, he or she collects information about the job's actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting. This list may also include how, why, and when the worker performs each activity.
- Human behaviors.
Information about human behaviors the job requires, like sensing, communicating, lifting weights, or walking long distances
- Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids.
Information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied (such as finance or law), and services rendered (such as counseling or repairing).
- * Performance standards.
Information about the job s performance standards (in terms of quantity or quality levels for each job duty, for instance).
- * Job context.
Information about such matters as physical working conditions, work schedule, incentives, and, for instance, the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact.
- * Human requirements.
Information such as knowledge or skills (education, training, work experience) and required personal attributes (aptitudes, personality, interests).
o ( special need for constructing the ad( AIDA, Attention Interest, Desire, Action)
o Seleting media ( local, vs national, internet, journals)
o Criteria for media selection
§ Type of position
§ Local market conditions
- Internet ( reaches a lot of ppl,cheap and quick needs time to evaluate all)
- College recruitment
§ About 40% of externally filled jobs require a college degree
§ Ppl are not trained, often former students
§ It is expensive ( broschures) and time consuming
§ Extra training needed
o Students can get to know the company and collegues and gain knowledge
o Have extra working power while evalutating them as an employee
- Walk ins
o Very cost effective in attracting local applicants
o Ppl apply even there is no current job, but you can keep their infos for the future
o Give feedback eventhought you don't have a job offer
- Referrals ( prices are offered to those who made a good referral and lead to hiring)
o Pro: more applicants, employees provide accurate information ( they put their
reputation on line) , It is very price effective
o Neg: Explain why you didn't hire someone
- Employment agencies ( public agencies, agencies associated with non profit Org, privately
o Sometimes ppl just register so they get insurance, so they don't show up
o agencies assist applicants in their application process
- Temp agencies
o Give ppl a trial run before hiring
o Companies need hours of work, not days employed at accompany
o Temps may be more productive, but are more costly
o Ppl don't feel connected to the company and have the feeling they can get replaced
- Sequential interview: several persons interview the applicant, in sequence, one-on-one, and then make their hiring decision.,(you have the chance to go deeper in your questions)
o Unstructured sequential interview: interviewers ask question which come to their
o Structured sequential interview: each interviewer rated the candidate on a standard
evaluation form using standardized questions
- Panel interview: a team of interviewers (usually two to three), who together interview each candidate and then combine their ratings into a final panel score.
o assumed to be more stressfull ,
o better fort he company
o need for a good preparation
- Mass interview: panel interviews several candidates simultaneously. The panel poses a
problem and then watches to see which candidate takes the lead in formulating
answers(group of applicants get interviewed),
o looking for leadership skills,
o not a main decision tool, but good in earlier state
- Phone interview: can be more accurate than face-to - face for judging an applications
conscientiousness, intelligence and interpersonal skill so
No need to focus on handshake, or appearance Unexpected call lead to spontaneous answers
- Computerized interview (used in early stages )
o Questions on computerized interviews come in rapid sequence and require the
applicant to concentrate.26 The typical computerized interview program measures
the response time to each question. A delay in answering certain questions such as
Can you be trusted? flags a potential problem
- one- on - one interview: one interviews the other by seeking oral responsesto oral inquiries.
- Video/ web assisted interview: is like a face to face interview for employer, but the
applicant needs some extra preparation
o Make sure you look presentable
o Clean the room
o Test first
- Snap judgment ( first impression): first impression based on test scores or first minutes of interviews
o positive impression can change, but its hard to overcome negative impression
o Interviewers are more influenced by unfavorable than favorable facts
- Job misunderstanding : Not clarifying what the job requires: the interviewer doesnt have a accurate picture what the job entails, and what kind of candidate would be best suitable
o Often there are wrong stereotypes
o Clarify the traits you are looking for
- Candidate Order(contrast) error : The order you see applicants affects how you rate them. It can go in 2 ways. :
1. The candidate after a perfect candidate appears just avarege, eventhought the
person is good
2. If there is a bad candidate, the next one seems better
- Pressure to hire: people who need to hire evaluate a person better as those without pressure
- Nonverbal behavior of the job candidate: body language, appropriate cloth, eye contact, language, voice level smell etc.
- Impression management: make interviewers to like the applicants, by agree with their
opinions. Or use self promoting comments about yourself, to create an impression of competence
- Personal characteristics: attractiveness, Gender, Race words a person uses, physical aspects, gender, age, race, pregnancy
- Interviewer behavior:
o signaling the right answer with body language,
o ask question like ( you are good in it, aren´t you?).
o show to much power and don't let the interviewee enough time to answer
o put too much pressure, play psychologist
Ideally, the basic idea is to write situational (what
would you do), behavioral (what did you do), or job knowledge questions, and have job experts (like those supervising the job) also write answers for these questions, rated from good to poor. The
1) Job analysis: Write a job description with a lost of job duties, required knowledge, skills, abilities and other worker qualification
2) Rate the main job duties: rate each job duty (f.e.1 to5) based on importance to job success
3) Create interview questions: create questions for each job duty, with more questions for the important duties
4) Create benchmark Answers (what are answers we can excpect and which would you prefer)
5) Appoint the interview panel & conduct interview: generally panel are used rather than one- on-one situations. Members of the panel are those writing the questions, usually just one answers them
- Alternation Ranking: Rank employeers due to one specific characteristic (einfüllen indem erst der beste, dann der schlechteste, 2. Beste, zweit schlechtteste ...) Challenging to rank just one charakteristic. Ist easier to say who are the good ones, harder to say who is the worst
o Cross out those you dont know good enough to be evaluated
- Paired comparison: for every trait you pair and compare ecery subordinate with every other subordinate( just for small team)
o Compare every pair individually and give a "plus" for the better and a minus for the
worser employee. Add up all plusses to see who is best
- Forced distribution ( scale with the information, which tells you how many percent of your team should be ranked how ( 10% low, 20%low-average,40% average, 20%hi-avg, 10%high)
o Advantage: managers have to decide who fits in which category, eventhough it
seems everybody is great
o Cons: doesnt work in a small team, since it works in a noral distribution