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Topic 2: Disparities in Wealth and Development
Terms in this set (81)
GNI (gross national income)
the total income based on value of goods and services produced within a country, together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries (now used in preference to GNP)</li>
Core and periphery
the concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery - can be applied to various scales
more economically developed countries
Human Development Index
"a composite measure of development based on three components of human development:
1. longevity (life expectancy)
2. adult literacy and average number of year's schooling
3. standard of living - income adjusted to local cost of living i.e. purchasing power"
Commonwealth of Independent States, made up of former Soviet republics
Infant mortality rate (IMR)Â
the number of deaths of children less than one year old per 1000 live births.Â
"Measures poverty in developing countries based on three dimensions:
1. probability of not surviving to 40
2. adult literacy rate
3. GDP per capita (PPP USD)"
"measures poverty in selected OECD countries, based on:
1. probability of not surviving to 60
2. adult functional illiteracy rate
3. percentage of people living below income poverty line
4. long-term unemployment rate (12 months or more)"
Gender-related development index (GDI)
Compares the level of development of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
Gender Empowerment measure (GEM)
the UN Development Programme's attempt to measure the extent of gender equality across the globe's countries, based on estimates of women's relative economic income, high-paying positions, and access to professional and parliamentary positions
"less economically developed countries
(non-industrial nations, base of manufacturing industries)"
an imbalanced nutrient and/or energy intake - starvation, deficiency diseases, obesity, etc.
limited or non-existent food intake
lack of specific vitamins and minerals
lack of protein or essential amino acids
A growth retarding disease affecting infants who receive too few calories (energy) and insufficient protein
too much energy and/or protein foods
four economies (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan) that were the first NICs, and were associated with very high growth rates and industrialisation between the 1960s and 1990s
The UN Millennium Development Goals
"1) Eradicate extreme hunger & poverty
2) Achieve universal Primary care education
3) Promote gender equality & empower women
4) Reduce child mortality
5) Improve maternal health
6) Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria & other diseases
7) Ensure environmental sustainability
8) Develop a global partnership for development"
Fair, or ethical, trade
Trade that attempts to be socially, economically and environmentally responsible. It is trade in which companies take responsibility for the wider impacts of their business. Ethical trading is an attempt to address failing of the global trading system
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
the use of resources to improve quality of life in a country
GNI per capita
the GNI of a country divided by its total population
GNI at purchasing power parity
the GNI of a country is converted into USD on the basis of how the value of the currency compares with that of other countries
purchasing power parity (PPP)
a measure of how much of a common "market basket" of goods & services each currency can purchase locally - equalises the purchasing power of different currencies in their home countries for a given amount of goods
least developed countries (LDCs)
the poorest and weakest economies in the developing world as identified by UNCATD (e.g. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Haiti)
the gradual process of acquiring knowledge, understanding and skills
development that seeks to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations
the process of being pushed to the edge of economic activity, of largely being left out of positive economic trendsÂ
Stages of development
"1. Least developed countries
2. Developing countries
3. Newly industrialised countries
4. Developed countries"
"Divide between developed in the north and undeveloped in the south
Adult literacy index and gross enrolment ratio index - together are the education index
Quality of life factors
* Economic : income, job security, standard of living
* Physical : diet/nutrition, water supply, environment
* Social: family, friends, education, health
* Psychological: happiness, security, freedom"
"Based on adult literacy rate and combined enrollment of primary, secondary, and tertiary schools"
The gap between less and more developed countries
A socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits (skin tone)
Cultural heritage (country of origin)
Foreign direct investment
Physical geography in development
* landlocked countries cannot trade
* small island countries - remote
* tropical conditions - poor health, bad farming
* generous allocations of natural resources (e.g. UAE)
* non-agricultural tropical countries do well
More advanced developing countries:
* are largest country in the region
* have abundant natural resources
* are newly industrialising countries
Least developing countries:
* are land-locked or islands
* have few natural resources
* are seriously affected by natural hazards (too expensive)
Core and periphery
The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The number of children in a country who die before their first birthday per 1,000 live births
The exchange of goods and/or services. The exchange maybe for other goods and/or services but is normally for money.
A group of countries that have joined together to promote trade. This might be through relaxing protectionist barriers or even having a common currency. Examples of trading blocs include the EU, NAFTA and ASEAN.
Goods and/or services produced within a country and then sold overseas.
Goods and/or services purchased overseas and brought into a country.
The prohibition of trade with a particular country. An embargo might be a way of punishing a country or an attempt to force a country to change its policies. Probably the most famous embargo is the US embargo of Cuba.
Sanctions are restrictions placed on a country's trading. For example after Kuwait was invaded by Iraq, Iraq was not allowed to buy any military goods or weapons. This sanction was enforced by the UN.
Attempts to protect domestic markets by making foreign goods less competitive. This is most commonly done through tariffs and and quotas placed on foreign goods and subsidies given to domestic goods.
Tax/duties placed on imported products to make them more expensive and reduce demand for them.
A limit placed on foreign goods to reduce the supply of them, therefore forcing the price up reducing the demand for them.
: Financial help given to companies to make their production costs less. This might be through grants, or the reduction of taxes, relaxed planning control or below marked price electricity and water. The aim of subsidies is to make products cheaper and to protect them from overseas competition.
When trade is totally free and fair - there are no protectionist policies in place. It is the aim of the WTO to promote free trade around the world.
The World Trade Organisation is an organisation aimed at protecting free global trade. It replaced GATT in 1995 and has 153 members. To join the WTO you have to demonstrate how your country promotes and practices free trade.
Fairtrade does not produce goods itself, but instead lends its labels to companies that treat suppliers, host communities and the environment fairly and sustainably
Balance of trade surplus
When the value of your exports is greater than the value of your imports.
Balance of trade deficit
When the value of your imports is grater than the value of your exports.
Foreign direct investment is money invested in a foreign country by TNCs or other countries.
A transnational corporation is a company that operates in multiple countries.
Small loans that are given to people that normally struggle to get credit from normal banks. The pioneers of microcredit was Grameen Bank in Bangladesh
Free trade zones
A zone or area where tariffs and quotas maybe waivered, taxes lowered, planning relaxed and bureaucracy eased to try and encourage investment and FDI. Also known as export processing zones or enterprise zones
Help that is given to a country that is suffering from a natural disaster or conflict. Emergency aid may include food, water, tents, clothing or even rescue teams to look for victims of natural disasters.
Aid that is given to benefit the country. This might be money given to build a new road or port to improve infrastructure or money given to build a new hospital or school to benefit the people of a country.
Aid that is given to a country with proviso that they spend it in a particularly way or follow a particular policy.
Aid that is given to a country with no policy or spending requirements attached.
Aid that is given by multiple donors to a specific country. Multilateral aid may be collected by an NGO or a UN organisation e.g. UNHCR or WFP.
Aid that is given by one country directly to another country.
Non-governmental organisations have no connections with national governments. They are usually charitable organisations who aim to benefit local communities and support the development of countries.
Formed at Bretton Woods in 1944 the World Bank is charged with helping developing nations.
Also formed at Bretton Woods in 1944, the International Monetary Fund aims to stabilize currencies and support weak economies.
Structural Adjustment Programmes were implemented by the IMF. Aid or loans was usually dependent on countries following SAPs. SAPs aimed to cut social expenditure, liberalize trade, privatize assets and reduce corruption. Unfortunately many of the policies were criticized because they ended up favouring MEDCs and TNCs who were able to obtain favourable trading terms and purchase undervalued government assets.
calculated by taking the total GNI of a country and dividing it by the total population in order to compare countries of different sized populations
the proportion of the adult population aged 15 and over that can read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life
Money that is sent back to family and friends from economic migrants, usually living abroad
People that migrate to a different location (sometimes a different country) for the purpose of finding improved job prospects.
Health Adjusted Life Expectance (good health and quality of life rather that length of life) - not regional
movement of a group of people to another country - links to home nation (Irish, Jewish, Serbian etc.)
Gini coefficient (Gini index)
measures the ratio of rich and poor people and is thus a measure of the relative degree of socioeconomic inequaliy
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Topic 1: Populations in Transition
Topic 3: Patterns in Environmental Quality and Sus…
Topic 4: Patterns in Resource Consumption
Topic F: Food and Health
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