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Topic 4: Patterns in Resource Consumption
Terms in this set (78)
anything that is used to produce goods or services.
resources that are naturally made by our planet e.g. water, wind, coal, gold and diamonds.
resources that have been created and developed by humans e.g. computers and schools.
a resource that can be used over and over again. Resources that don't run out are often described as being infinite e.g. wind.
a resource that runs out once it has been used. Non-renewable resources are described as being finite i.e. they will eventually run out e.g. fossil fuels.
fuels that have been created over millions of years from decaying biological matter. The three main fossil fuels are; oil, gas and coal.
the theoretical measurement of the amount of land and water population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its waste, under prevailing technology
resources that are accessible and usable
peak oil production
the year in which the world or an individual oil-production country reaches its highest level of production, with production declining thereafter
a country's ability to secure all its energy needs
a lack of security over energy sources
political relations among nations, particularly relating to claims and disputes pertaining to borders, territories and resources
an organisation of people who supply the same good and join together to control the overall supply of the product. The members of a cartel can force up the price of than the air good either by restricting its supply on the world market or by agreeing on a particular supply price and refusing to sell the good for any less
farmland that can be used to grow crops
The re-processing of industrial and household waste so that materials can be reused. Currently materials like paper, card, plastics, glass and some metals are recycled.
his means using a product more than once. This might be returning it to a manufacturer e.g. coke bottles or selling/passing onto another consumer e.g. charity shops
This refers to using less of a product e.g. less packaging, less energy.
using one resource rather than another
the burying of waste in big pits
These are measures taken by humans to reduce shortages. This might be reducing population through better family planning and possibly anti-natalist policies. Or it could be reducing waste e.g. through better recycling.
Despite their name, they are actually more negative solutions to resource shortages. These might be fighting and war or massive famines which actually reduce the overall population and therefore demand.
This is an idea of thought that follows Malthus's ideas. Paul Ehrlich and the ''Club of Rome" both have Neo-Malthusiasn ideas.
Club of Rome
The Club of Rome were formed in 1972. They were headed by Dennis Meadows and developed the Limits to Growth Model. They are also believed that the growth in population would lead to worldwide misery.
Anti-Malthusian is simply the school of thought that disagrees with Malthus's pessimism and is more aligned to Boserup's optimism i.e. that humans will always find solutions to shortages.
"The maximum number of people that may live in or visit a destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of the living environment.
environmental carrying capacity
the maximum number of residents an area can support, before environmental harm is done
perceptual carrying capacity
the maximum number of people in an area before residents consider an impact like noise to be excessive.
Carrying capacity: Ecological/Environmental/Biological/Biophysical
This deals with the extent to which the natural environment can tolerate a population. This is made more complicated by the fact that because it deals with ecology which is able to regenerate to some extent so in this case the carrying capacity is when the damage exceeds the habitats ability to regenerate.
Carrying capacity: economic factors
This relates to the amount of people an economy can support in terms of jobs, levels of debt. If an area has high levels of unemployment and debt then it probably exceeds its carrying capacity.
carrying capacity: perceptual/social
This relates to the negative socio-cultural affects related to populations size. Perceptual and social carrying capacity may have been reached when the local tolerance for an area decreases and they decide to move.
carrying capacity: physical
his is the maximum number of people that an area is actually able to support/hold. For example Singapore is a finite size, so there is only so many houses that can be physically built there for people to live in.
The ability of an area to provide resources and absorb waste.
unit of measurement of the ecological footprint, representing the biological productivity of an average hectare of land
Country's whose ecological footprint is lower than there biocapacity.
Country's whole ecological footprint is higher than there biocapacity.
The total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organisation, event, product or person.
Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)
"Measures countries environmental sustainability. It uses 26 indicators and 76 measurements and looks at things like pollution levels, environmental regulations and resource use. The higher the score the more environmentally sustainable a country is.
OPEC stands for the organisation for petroleum exporting countries. It has 12 members and controls over 40% of the world's oil supply and over 20% of the gas supply. Its headquarters are in Vienna, Austria.
Any organisation, individual or company who controls enough market share to be able to influence the market place e.g. be able to reduce supply in order to increase prices.
Relates to the involvement of TNCs in the practice of colonialism. TNCs can have significant power over small LEDCs. LEDCs will often fear questioning the role of TNCs because they do not want to lose investment.Definition
brent crude and light sweet crude
These are two of the biggest classifications of oil and are used to fix prices. Brent crude is traded in London and Light Sweet Crude in New York.
political factors influencing the demand and production of oil
* international relations
* political instability
* emissions quotas
* carbon tax
* NGO pressure
social factors affecting the demand and production of oil
* human cost of protecting supplies
* public image
* public health
* exploitation of workers and countries
environmental factors affecting the demand and production of oil
* greenhouse effect and global warming
* oil spills
* damaged caused by extraction
economic factors affecting the demand and production of oil
* transportation costs
* price of oil
* demand for oil
* finite supply
* domestic supplies
* increases in extraction costs
* investment in alternatives
Using the power of the sun to either heat water or generate electricity. Solar power cells convert sunlight into electricity, using the energy of speeding photons to create an electrical current within a solar panel.
Using the wind to move a wind turbine to drive a generator and create electricity.
Using the motion of incoming and outgoing tide to create energy
using the motion of the waves to generate electricity.
The use of biological matter to create energy. It is a renewable form of energy, but because the mater is often burnt it still releases greenhouse gases
HEP (hydroelectric power)
Using the power of falling water in rivers to drive generators. At the moment dams have to be built to create HEP power.
NIMBY (not in my back yard)
This is a phenomenon happening in many countries. It is basically when people support ideas e.g. wind turbines are a good idea, but they don't want them built near their own house.
not a renewable energy source because it uses uranium which is finite. However, the estimated supply of uranium is much greater than fossil fuels and when used to produced energy, creates a lot less greenhouse gases.Â
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)
the UN agency in charge of promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
"This is the process of individuals or companies illegally disposing of their waste. This problem is increasing because of:
* Increased costs of landfill
* Restrictions on disposal of electrical waste
* Cost of meeting recycling targets
dynamite and cyanide fising
Both practices kill un-targeted fish as well as the sea bed and coral reefs.
This is the total amount of greenhouse gases released by a person, company, country, event or product.
This refers to have a zero carbon footprint. Your footprint can be zero if the amount of greenhouse gases you release is equal or below the amount you offset or sequester.
carbon trade and carbon permits
When countries or companies are given a limit on the amount of carbon that they can release. The limit is given in the form of permits. Companies or countries that produce less than there permitted level can then sell their surpluses (trade). The idea is that the size of the permits will be reduced each year. It is hoped that by increasing the value of releasing carbon, companies and countries will choose to release less.
This is a natural or artificial reservoir (store) that accumulates and holds carbon indefinitely e.g. tropical rainforest.
a levy (tax) placed on the amount of carbon you release. This is hard to do individually, so products that contain carbon can be taxed e.g. petrol.
the reduction in the release of greenhouse gases to offset greenhouse gases you are releasing. Offsetting is normally done by investing in renewable energy schemes or reforestation schemes.
the process of capturing and storing carbon. Captured carbon can be then stored in a carbon sink
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)Â
A scientific intergovernmental tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It provides the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences, notably the risk of climate change caused by human activity.
an action plan of the UN related to sustainable development and was an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, in 1992.
This is the point that climate changes from one stable state to another stable state. It is believed that once the tipping has been reached it is impossible to stop it. Some scientists believe we have already reached the tipping point with climate change and that it doesn't matter what we do, climate change will happen.
Rio Earth Summit (1992)
The assembled leaders signed the Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. It also adopted Agenda 21, a 300 page plan for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century.
Stern Review (on the Economics of Climate Change)
a 700-page report that discusses the effect of global warming on the world economy.Â
protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming.
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)
The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilisation of greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human) interference with the climate system."
Barrier to sustainable development: Poverty
Renewable and sustainable technology e.g. hybrid cars, solar panels and energy saving light bulbs can be very expensive. When people are poor, there priority is feeding, clothing and housing their family, not worrying about saving energy.
Barrier to sustainable development: Renewable technology and technology
Many renewable technologies are sill in their infancy. In many cases the technology is still inefficient e.g. wave and tidal power. Unlike fossil fuels it is very hard to adjust the supply of renewable energy to meet changes in demand e.g. it is not possible to make the wind blow harder or the sun shine harder when demand is highest. Also technology to store surplus energy is still very inefficient.
Barrier to sustainable development: Population growth
The world's population is currently at about 7 billion and rising rapidly. Predictions vary, but most people believe it will reach at least 9 billion which is obviously going to put an increase in pressure on energy and resources.
Barrier to sustainable development: Development
There are still millions of people living in poverty. As they develop they will want to have many of the luxuries we have e.g. washing machines, private toilets, cars, etc. You cannot deny anyone the luxuries we have, so it will be necessary to look at how we can make them more sustainable.
Barrier to sustainable development: Education
IEven if you have laws to reduce pollution and use more renewable energy, it can be very hard to police this. Countries may not have the manpower, time or technology to monitor and enforce the law.
Barrier to sustainable development: Enforcement
Even if you have laws to reduce pollution and use more renewable energy, it can be very hard to police this. Countries may not have the manpower, time or technology to monitor and enforce the law.
Barrier to sustainable development: International Consensus
With over 200 countries in the world, it is extremely hard to get everyone to agree that climate change is happening, let alone agree on how to solve it. Famously the US did not sign the Kyoto protocol. However, they are not the only country reluctant to make cuts in greenhouse gases that may impact development. Both India and China who have growing economies and growing populations would argue that the have the right to develop in a similar manner to how current MEDCs developed.
Barrier to sustainable development: Habit
Once habits have been formed, it is very hard to break them. If you are used to using a dishwasher, air-con, televisions and driving to work, it is very hard to give them up. For everyone else you have to try and make bad habits more sustainable e.g. hybrid cars or energy saving light bulbs
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Topic 1: Populations in Transition
Topic 2: Disparities in Wealth and Development
Topic 3: Patterns in Environmental Quality and Sus…
Topic F: Food and Health
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