Globalization Study Set
Terms in this set (38)
An index from 1-100 that uses 24 different variables covering economic, social and political integration. It often uses readily available, for statistics not available for one country a weighting system is used. It can allow for comparisons to be made both between two different countries at the present year and a single country over time.
A process of creating networks of connections among actors at multi-continental distances. Mediated through a variety of flows. Including people, information and ideas, capital and goods.
Indicators of Economic Globalization Used in the KOF
1. Long distance of capital, goods and services
2. Actual economic flows (trade, FDI and portfolio investment)
3. Restrictions to trade and capital - import barriers, mean tariff rates, taxes on international trade
4. Trade (% of the GDP)
5. Income payments to Foreign Nationals (% of GDP)
6. Mean Tariff Rate
Indicators of Political Globalization Used in the KOF
1. Number of embassies and high commissions
2. Number of IGOs that the government is apart of
3. Number of UN peace missions that the country has participated in
4 Number of treaties signed between two or more states.
Indicators of Social Globalization Used in the KOF
1. Personal contacts
a. Direct interaction among people living in
b. International telecom traffic.
c. Degree of tourism
2. Information flows
a. Measure the potential flow of ideas and
b. Number of internet users
c. Share of households with a television
3. Cultural proximity (literally)
a. Shared linguistical features between two
b. Shared habits in cuisine.
c. Imported and exported books
d. Number of McDonalds and IKEA stores
Criticism of the KOF
1. Smaller countries seem to be over-represented due to their proximity to bigger countries.
2. Relevance of international mail seems low.
3. Trade in books and newspapers is falling.
4. People who use internet cafes and home connections are not counted as internet users
5. Trade calculations often ignore the informal economy.
6. It doesn't count illegal immingrants.
7. Some countries share diplomatic offices.
8. The KOF seems to imply that countries at the top are "better" than countries at the bottom.
Factors to Consider When Measuring How "Globalized" a Country Is
1. Flow of goods
2. Flow of capital
3. Flow of people
4. Flow of ideas
5. Flow of information
The countries most integrated with the rest of the world. They are also the nations that enjoy the most benefits from globalization like foreign investment, more solid growth and a net migration gain.
Nations in a transitionary state between the periphery and entering the core.
The nations least regarded and integrated with and by the rest of the world. Often most vulnerable to exploitation.
Physical Characteristics that Make an Area Part of the Core
2. Availability of the natural resources.
3. Close to another developed area.
4. Having a temperate climate.
5. Large areas of flat land.
Physical Characteristics that Make an Area Part of the Periphery
1. Lacking coastline
2. Having a mountainous landscape.
3. Very hot climates.
4. Lack of fertile land of natural resources.
5. Subjection to frequent natural disasters.
Human Factors that Make an Area Part of the Core
1. Good transport links.
2. Good education systems.
3. Good medical system.
4. Having good diplomatic relations.
5. Stable democratic institutions.
6. The creation of government development zones.
Human Factors that Make an Area Part of the Periphery
1. Poor education systems.
2. Poor healthcare systems.
3. Weak or non-existent democratic institutions.
4. Large levels of government debt.
5. Frequent armed conflicts and internal unrest.
6. Exploitation from a previous colonial overlord.
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)
The original treaty that allowed for the lowering of global tariffs and other trade barriers. Negotiated and put into force in Geneva in 1947 it was weak in that it has no mechanisms to resolve trade disputed nor any way of ammending the original set of rules without the agreement of all member states.
The process, beginning in the mid-20th century through which large, module containers have been used for the transport of goods both through sea and land. Has led to a significant reduction in the prices of imported goods.
Created in 1944, this organization was originally created to provide the necessary loans and financial support to rebuild Europe after the Second World War. Beginning in the 1970s its focus began to shift from reconstruction towards alleviating poverty in the third world.
Criticisms of the World Bank
1. The chair always comes from America.
2. MEDC's have to much power over its policies.
3. It focuses to much on the overall GDP growth of a country rather than its people's living standards.
4. Some projects involve expensive technologies that the receiving countries could not afford.
5. Some projects have damaged the local environment.
6. In some projects people have been forcefully relocated without accurate provision of temporary shelter and financial support.
The process through which Agriculture has become a more industrial sector by nature.
Key Aspects of Agro-industrialization
1. The use of heavy machinery.
2. Specialization by growers.
3. Chemical or genetic enhancement of food.
4. Dominance of the agricultural sector by MNCs and TNCs.
5. Specialization by workers (monoculture)
6. Low labor inputs in comparison to outputs
7. Use of IT management systems
How Much Water Would it Take to Provide Clean Water For 2.6 Billion People?
Factors that Influence Flows of Information
2. Former colonization
5. Business Offers
6. Population Size
Difference Between TNCs and MNCs
TNCs provide services targeted at specific countries and regions and are organizationally more complex.
Reasons for Increased Global Availability in Food
1. Large Food Brokers
2. Industrial Farms
3. Biochemical Farms
Cultural Reasons for Agroindustrialization
People want food year round and at a very high quality.
Number of Small Farms Along the River Ngiro
Percentage of the River Ngiro Used for Flower Farming
Number of Roses Consumed by Brits on Valentines Day
Percentage of Europe's Flowers Made By Kenya
Negative Impacts of Agroindustrialization on the Environment
3. Land degradation
4. Decline in biodiversity
Structural Adjustment Policies
Policies implemented by governments often with the goal of reducing government intervention in the economy. These are often a pre-requisite for nations to receive loans from the IMF.
Number of WTO Member States
Criticisms of the WTO
1. Free trade does not make the world a safer place.
2. The WTO systematically ignores human rights concerns. For example nations are barred from banning the importation of products on the basis of how they were made, deciding trade agreements on the basis of human rights and on banning the purchase of certain products on the basis of the business dealings of companies.
3. The WTO has consistently pushed for the privatization of some 160 different sectors through the 1994 General Agreement on Trade in Services.
4. Corporations have often used the WTO to overturn environmental regulations.
5. The WTO's defense of Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights(TRIPs) has made it difficult for developing nations to be able to provide basic drugs for their people, among other things.
6. The WTO is inherently undemocratic and the details of meetings are often kept secret.
Amount of Money Given to Greece by the IMF
Alternatives to the IMF and World Bank
1. New World Bank
2. Asian Infrastructure Development Bank
Goals of the World Bank
1. End extreme poverty.
2. Raise the incomes of the world's bottom 40%.
How does the World bank Finance Itself?
1. Collecting bonds from investors.
2. Subscription fees from governments.
3. Net earnings from it's investments.
Number of People Displaced by the World Bank