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IB Geography Urban Environments Vocab
Terms in this set (39)
a sparsely populated community located in the country (predominantly primary activities)
a settlement engaging in predominantly secondary and tertiary activities, dense population.
the actual land upon which a settlement is built. Physical factors were most important in the initial choice of a site. = coordinates
describes where a settlement is located in relation to other surrounding features such as settlements, rivers & communications
refers to a city's main activities and relates to its main economic and social development.
the arrangement of settlements within a given area in an order of importance. Based on size (area + population), range and number of services & functions and relative sphere of influence.
the minimum number of people required for a good or service to stay in business.
necessity or convenience goods bought frequently (e.g. bread). Willing distance travel of people is short.
shopping goods bought fairly often (e.g. clothes). Reasonable travelling distance (next town)
luxury or shopping goods bought or used infrequently (e.g. car). Long travelling distance plausible.
sphere of influence
the area served by a settlement or service.
a city consisting of at least 10 million inhabitants.
peak land value intersection (PLVI)
the point with the highest land value in a city.
land prices usually fall away quite sharply with distance from the PLVI.
bid rent theory
the assumption that, in a free market, the highest bidder will obtain use of the land. Competition for land is keenest in the city centre (PLVI)
a social group that shares a common and distinctive culture, religion, language, or the like
the increase in proportion of people living in towns or cities.
a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs
a demographic & social process whereby people move from urban to rural areas
where an ethnic group gains advantages by being in located in one place: there are enough of them to support the services
where certain groups are excluded from particular areas
when people are forced to live in areas where facilities such as housing, education, hospitals, roads, sewerage & draining systems are inadequate, sub-standard or inferior to the rest of the city.
slums and squatter settlements
area in a less developed city where people reside on land they do not own, they don't pay rent or property taxes. Usually they settle down at the outskirt of the city.
an economy where both technically advanced and technically primitive sectors exist
the informal sector
2 types: legal (cleaner, rubbish sorter, etc.) or illegal (prostitution, theft, drugs). Usually do not pay taxes and are not recognised by the government.
the process of renewal and rebuilding accompanying the influx of middle-class or affluent people into deteriorating areas
a revitalisation of urban areas and a movement of people back into these areas.
a construction program to replace or restore substandard buildings in an urban area
the migration out of a city or area, e.g. suburbanisation
the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities
a factor that drives people away / makes them emigrate.
a factor that attracts people / makes them immigrate.
the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area
sustainable city (management)
reduced level of inputs; satisfying our needs (good quality of life); reduced levels of waste & pollution.
high levels of inputs; not satisfying needs (congestion, poor air quality); large amounts of waste & pollution
urban ecological footprint
the area of wilderness of both land and sea needed to supply resources to a human population; This includes the area of wilderness needed to assimilate human waste.
urban heat island effect
when urban areas are generally warmer (2-4°C higher) than those of the surrounding countryside.
bid rent theory
land use is mostly retail in the CBD / PLVI.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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