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Chapter 10: The Cardiovascular System

Terms in this set (25)

Procedure: Right femoral angiography, percutaneous transluminal tibioperoneal angioplasty and stenting.

Description of Procedure: The patient was premedicated and brought to the cardiovascular laboratory. The right inguinal region is prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. Local cutaneous anesthesia was obtained with 1% Lidocaine. A 6 French sheath was inserted antegrade into the right femoral artery. It was kinked and was replaced with a 6 French Arrow sheath.
Findings: Selective injections into the right femoral artery revealed diffuse irregularities of the superficial femoral artery with a 95 percent mid to distal stenosis and a 60 percent distal stenosis. The distal popliteal artery had an eccentric 60 percent stenosis. The tibial peroneal trunk was diffusely diseased with sequential 95 percent stenosis present. The anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries are both occluded. We gave intravenous heparin 2,500 units. The distal vessel was wired with a V18 wire. We then dilated both superficial femoral artery lesions with a 5 x 4 Diamond balloon and achieved good angiographic result. We then elected to approach the tibial peroneal trunk that was a high-grade stenosis leading into the only remaining circulation. This was dilated with a 3 x 4 Diamond balloon. This had satisfactory results, but we elected to stent this for a better long term patency. We exchanged out the V18 wire for a coronary extra support wire and deployed a 3.5 x 40 mm GR2 coronary stent. This was then post-dilated to high pressures with a 3.5 x 40 mm NC Bandit balloon. We then performed inflations in the popliteal artery with a 4 x 2 Symmetry balloon, also achieving a satisfactory angiographic result. The balloon catheter was then withdrawn. The final angiographic result was excellent, with wide patency from the superficial femoral artery into the peroneal down to the ankle. Following the procedure, an ACT was obtained. The sheath was removed. A strong popliteal pulse was obtained. The patient was transported in stable condition to the recovery unit.

Impression:
1. Successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of sequential 95 and 60 percent mid and distal superficial femoral artery lesions.
2. Successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of a 60 percent popliteal lesion.
3. Successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of diffuse 95 percent tibial peroneal trunk stenosis with stenting producing a residual stenosis to 0 percent.
Which angioplasty codes are correct to report?
CLINICAL SUMMARY: The patient is a 55 year-old female with known coronary disease and previous left anterior descending and diagonal artery intervention, with recent recurrent chest pain. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated continued patency of the stented segment, but diffuse borderline changes in the ostial/proximal portion of the right coronary artery.

PROCEDURE: With informed consent obtained, the patient was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. With the right groin area infiltrated with 2percent Xylocaine and the patient given 2 mg of Versed and 50 mcg of fentanyl intravenously for conscious sedation and pain control, the 6 French catheter sheath from the diagnostic study was exchanged for a 6 French sheath and a 6 French JR4 catheter with side holes utilized. The patient initially received 3000 units of IV heparin, and then IVUS interrogation was carried out using an Atlantis Boston Scientific probe. After it had been determined that there was significant stenosis in the ostial/proximal segment of the right coronary artery, the patient received an additional 3000 units of IV heparin, as well as Integrilin per double bolus injection. A 3.0 16-mm-long Taxus stent was then deployed in the ostium and proximal segment of the right coronary artery in a primary stenting procedure with inflation pressure up to 12 atmospheres applied. Final angiographic documentation was carried out, and then the guiding catheter pulled, the sheath upgraded to a 7 French system, because of some diffuse oozing around the 6 French sized sheath, and the patient is now being transferred to telemetry for post-coronary intervention observation and care.

RESULTS: The initial guiding picture of the right coronary artery demonstrates the right coronary artery to be dominant in distribution, with luminal irregularities in its proximal and mid-third with up to 50 percent stenosis in the ostial/proximal segment per angiographic criteria although some additional increased radiolucency observed in that segment.

IVUS interrogation confirms severe, concentric plaque formation in this ostial/proximal portion of the right coronary artery with over 80 percent area stenosis demonstrated. The mid, distal lesions are not significant, with less than 40 percent stenosis per IVUS evaluation.
Following the coronary intervention with stent placement, there is marked increase in the ostial/proximal right coronary artery size, with no evidence for intimal disruption, no intraluminal filling defect, and TIMI III flow preserved.

CONCLUSION: Successful coronary intervention with drug eluting Taxus stent placement to the ostial/proximal right coronary artery.
`PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Heart Block
POSTOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Heart Block
ANESTHESIA: Local anesthesia
NAME OF PROCEDURE: Reimplantation of dual chamber pacemaker
DESCRIPTION: The chest was prepped with Betadine and draped in the usual sterile fashion. Local anesthesia was obtained by infiltration of 1% Xylocaine. A subfascial incision was made about 2.5 cm below the clavicle, and the old pulse generator was removed. Using the Seldinger technique, the subclavian vein was cannulated and through this, the old atrial lead was removed, and a new atrial lead (serial # 6662458) was placed in the right atrium and to the atrial septum. Thresholds were obtained as follows: The P-wave was 1.4 millivolts, atrial threshold was 1.6 millivolts with a resultant current of 3.5 mA and resistance of 467 ohms.
Using a second subclavian stick in the Seldinger technique, the old ventricular lead was removed and a new ventricular lead (serial # 52236984) was inserted and placed into the right ventricular apex. The thresholds were obtained and were as follows: R-wave was 23.5 millivolts. The patient was pacing at 100% at 0.5 volts, with resultant current of 0.8 mA and resistance of 480 ohms. When we were satisfied with the thresholds, the leads were connected to the pacemaker generator (serial # 22561587), which was inserted into the previously created pocket.
The wound was thoroughly irrigated with antibiotic solution and hemostasis was obtained. The incision was closed in layered fashion with 2-0 Dexon. A compressive dressing was applied, and the patient tolerated the procedure very well. He was taken to the recovery room in satisfactory condition.
CLINICAL SUMMARY: The patient is a 41 year-old female with known coronary disease and recent recurrent chest pain, cardiac catheterization demonstrated subtotal occlusion of the diagonal artery at its takeoff from the left anterior descending artery.

PROCEDURE: With informed consent obtained, the patient was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. With the right groin area infiltrated with 2% Xylocaine, the patient was given 2 mg of Versed and 50 mcg Fentanyl intravenously for conscious sedation and pain control. The right femoral artery was cannulated with a modified Seldinger technique and a 6 French catheter sheath placed. A 6 French JL3.5 catheter with no side holes was utilized as a guiding catheter. After the initial guiding picture had been obtained, the patient was given Angiomax per protocol, and a short Cross-it 100 wire was advanced to the LAD and then into the diagonal vessel. A 2.0. 15-mm-long Maverick balloon was used for dilatation of the diagonal artery ostium with inflation pressure up to 8 atmospheres applied. Final angiographic documentation was carried out after the patient received 200 mcg of intracoronary nitroglycerine. The guiding catheter was then pulled, the sheath secured in place. The patient is now being transferred to telemetry for post coronary intervention observation and care.

RESULTS: The initial guiding picture of the left coronary system demonstrates the high-grade ostial stenosis of the diagonal artery taking off within the LAD. Following the coronary intervention with balloon angioplasty there is complete resolution of the stenosis with less than 10 percent residual narrowing observed, no evidence for intimal disruption, no intraluminal filling defect, and good antegrade TIMI III flow preserved.

CONCLUSION: Successful coronary intervention with balloon angioplasty to the ostial/proximal segment of the second diagonal vessel.
Preoperative Diagnosis: Coronary artery disease associated with congestive heart failure. In addition, the patient has diabetes and massive obesity.
Postoperative Diagnosis: Same
Anesthesia: General endotracheal
Incision: Median sternotomy

Indications: The patient had presented with severe congestive heart failure associated with her severe diabetes. She had significant coronary artery disease, consisting of a chronically occluded right coronary artery but a very important large obtuse marginal artery coming off as the main circumflex system.

She also has a left anterior descending artery which has moderate disease and this supplies quite a bit of collateral to her right system. The decision was therefore made to perform a coronary artery bypass grafting procedure particularly because she is so symptomatic. The patient was brought to the operating room.

Description of Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed in supine position. Myself, the operating surgeon was scrubbed throughout the entire operation. After the patient was prepared, median sternotomy incision was carried out and conduits were taken from the left arm as well as the right thigh. The patient weighs almost three hundred pounds and with her obesity there was some concern as to taking down the left internal mammary artery. Because the radial artery appeared to be a good conduit, she should have an arterial graft to the left anterior descending artery territory. She was cannulated after the aorta and atrium were exposed and after full heparinization.

Attention was turned to the coronary arteries. The first obtuse marginal artery was a very large target and the vein graft to this target indeed produced an excellent amount of flow. Proximal anastomosis was then carried out to the foot of the aorta. The left anterior descending artery does not have severe disease but is also a very good target, and the radial artery was anastomosed to this target, and the proximal anastomosis was then carried out to the root of the aorta.

Sternal closure was then done using wires. The subcutaneous layers were closed using Vicryl suture. The skin was approximated using staples.