Final Physiology II

Which of the following statements regarding the brain areas that direct emotion is NOT true?
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At neural level, memory is thought to represent?Strengthening connections between neurons.In which of the following regions has cocaine been shown to markedly increase levels of dopamine?Nucleus accumbens.Damage to the septum, one of the structures of the limbic system, causes a tame animal to become vicious, whereas destruction of the amygdala, another limbic structure, will make the same animal docile again. Which of the following statements may explain this result or correctly follow from it?In a normal animal, the septum may inhibit the amygdalaLong-term potentiation (LTP) describes...Strengthening connections between neurons via repeated stimulation.Current drug therapies for mood disorders include:A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs). C. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors. D. All the above.According to Stein and Wise (1969), the release of which neurotransmitter causes the rewarding effects of medial forebrain bundle (MFB) stimulation?NorepinephrineA distinction is made in memory research between _____ memory and _____ memory. The former refers to _____, whereas the later refers to_____.Semantic; Episodic; memory for general knowledge; memory for personally meaningful eventsThe term "voltage-regulated" means that the membrane ______Gated ion channels open and close with changes in the membrane potential.What is one of the earliest clinical features of depression?Loss of interest in previous activities.Which of the following structures is involved in both explicit memory as well as the development of fear?Amygdaloid nucleus.Dyslexia is characterized as a specific learning disability with unexpected difficulties in learning to read. From the following choices below, what describes the deficiencies of dyslexia as it pertains to learning language?Good declarative learning, but impaired procedural learning.When the neurotransmitter molecules released from the presynaptic axon terminals have diffused across the synaptic cleft and have reached the postsynaptic membrane, they...Bind to specific receptor proteins which stimulates the opening of chemically-regulated ion channels.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (EPSPs) produced by many different presynaptic fibers converging on a single postsynaptic neuron, causing summation on the postsynaptic dendrites and cell body, best describesSpatial summation.Which area of the brain might explain why people with mood disorders might experience a secondary anxiety disorder diagnosis, because of its over-activation?Amygdala.Which of the following substances is secreted by the hypothalamus and serves as a powerful stimulator of appetite?Neuropeptide Y (NPY)_____ describes a partial or total loss of memory. There are two subtypes: ______, which refers to an inability to recall events prior to injury, and _____, which refers to an inability toAmnesia; retrograde amnesia; anterograde amnesia; remember events subsequent to brain injury.The ability to manipulate information in memory temporarily, while remembering something else, is called...?Working memoryFor what type of neurotransmitter receptor are pimozide and spiroperidol highly selective antagonist?Dopamine.Joseph's heart was racing as he read the concluding chapter to a mystery. Which statement below best describes the way the brain handles different types of activities?Superficial regions handle conscious activities while deeper regions handle subconscious activities.The prefrontal cortex is involved in which psychological functions?Monitoring and control.Karl Lashley, one of the world's foremost brain researchers, tried to locate the area in the brain where engrams of memory traces were stored using rats. Lasley was believed that memory trace (engram) for maze learning in rats was stored in:Diffusely throughout the brain cortexWhat symptoms are found in dementia?Impairment of short and long-term memory, cognitive decline, and personality changes.Why do excessive levels of acetylcholine cause different signs and symptoms, depending on whether the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors are involved?Because some nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are located in and affect different anatomic structures.What happens to excess of neurotransmitter produced by a presynaptic neuron?It is taken back into the presynaptic neuron.During the teenage years, the brain...Grows and changes both in structure and functionAnxiety is associated withPostraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Phobias and General Anxiety disorder (GAD)The collective name for serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline is?Biogenic amines.Which part of the brain is most important to your recall of information for success on this test?Cerebrum.Retrieval from autobiographical memory is associated with activation in the ____ cortex in both hemispheres, but usually the right.Prefrontal.Of which drug is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive constituent?Cannabis.Local anaesthetics ....Block the opening of voltage regulated sodium ion channels.Which is a useful indication of impaired attention in Attention and Hyperactivity Deficit (ADHD)?Motor impersistence.Which of the following structure is not usually considered to be part of the Papez circuit?Caudate nucleus.Which of the following statements regarding diseases that induce altered states of consciousnessSymptoms of schizophrenia typically include delusions and paranoiaAn individual is presented with the letters D, O, Q, K, and L, and is asked mentally to reverse their order. The letters are removed and, after a short delay, the number 4 is presented. The individual is asked to identify the fourth letter in the series of letters shown but in reverse order (i.e., backwards; the answer is O). During the delay between the letters and the number, activation would be expected in which brain region?Ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.In the former question, the type of task consisting of remembering and ordering letters involves:Numerical memory.If a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the target cell and produces depolarization, the neurotransmitter....Produced an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSPs).Which of the following is NOT a property of chemically regulated ion gates?They respond best to membrane potential changes, such as depolarization.Activation of protein kinase by cyclic adenosine monophosphate in response to norepinephrine results in.....Phosphorylation of other proteins to open postsynaptic membrane lipid-like compound(s) produced by the brain that are believed to act as analgesics?Endocannabinoids.Explain briefly why long-term potentiation (LTP) requires the mediation of NMDA receptors and brief high-frequency stimulation.LTP is a persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse. Requires mediation for LTP generation under various conditions. High-frequency stimulation (greater than 100 Hz) is a treatment to treat parkinsonian movement disorders.What are the main differences between metabotropic and ion-gated neurotransmitter receptors?Ionotropic receptors are associated with ion channels and contain two functional domains. Metabotropic receptors have metabolic processes involved for ion movement. These receptors do not have ion channels and are associated with G proteins.