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Cognitive Biases: Problema 1: Demasiada información
Terms in this set (33)
Anchoring / Contrast effect / Focusing effect
We rely too much on the first piece of information given (the "anchor") and then evaluate other options in relation to that anchor.
Our perception is affected by our current thinking, so we fail to consider alternative possibilities.
If we can recall something, it must be more important than alternative solutions not as easily recalled.
Base rate fallacy
We focus on specific, anecdotal information over generic, base rate information.
Bias blind spot
We see bias at work in other people's judgment but not in our own.
Bizarreness effect / Humor effect
We remember bizarre / humorous material more easily than non-bizarre / funny material.
We search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms our preexisting beliefs.
We're more likely to try to prove our hypothesis than to disprove it
We revise our beliefs insufficiently when presented with new evidence
Context effect / cue-dependent forgetting / mood-congruent memory bias
We fail to recall information without memory cues.
Continued influence effect
If we learn a false truth, we continue to be influenced by it even if we have since learnt it is false.
We observe more differences if we compare two products at the same time vs. separately.
We underestimate how much visceral drives influence our attitudes, preferences, and behaviors.
Experimenter's bias / Observer effect / Expectation bias
Our expectations during obvservation can bias the outcome.
We react to choices differently depending on how it's presented. We avoid risk when a positive frame is presented and seek risk when a negative frame is presented.
Frequency illusion / Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon
After we learn new information we start noticing it everywhere.
Illusory truth effect
We believe information is correct if we're repeatedly exposed to it.
Mere exposure effect
We develop a preference for things because we are familiar with them.
We think of money in nominal instead of real terms.
If people disagree with us, we assume they do so because of egocentric biases.
We believe what we see in the world is objective reality, and other people who have different perceptions are uninformed.
We are more affected by negative things than by equally positive things.
We subconsciously influence / bias the participants of an experiment
We judge harmful actions as worse than equally harmful inactions.
We avoid information may cause psychological discomfort.
Picture superiority effect
We remember images more than words.
Post-purchase rationalization / Choice-supportive bias
We retroactively assign positive attributues to a purchase we just made.
We tend to not notice / more quickly forget stimuli that causes emotional discomfort and contradicts our prior beliefs.
We have an easier time relating to concepts when we see ourselves in that concept.
We reflexively reject new evidence if it contradicts established norms.
We consider information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to us
Von Restorff effect
We remember things that stand out from a group of similar items.
Our perceived change of a sensation is not proportionate to the actual change of the stimuli.
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