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Mastering A&P : Chapter 5
Terms in this set (54)
The word root ______ means black or dark.
The word root _____ means breast.
The word root ____ means under, below, or beneath.
The word root _____ means skin.
The word root ____ means tumor.
The cells that produce melanin are ___________.
Skin cancer arising in the stratum basale is called basal cell __________.
The deep layer of skin is called the ______.
Milk-producing glands in the breast are ______________.
An injection given under the skin is a ____________ injection.
Why does your skin remain red after a bad sunburn?
Inflammation causes increased blood flow.
Why would a third-degree burn be less painful than a first- or second-degree burn involving the same body area?
destruction of underlying pain receptors
Concept Map: Classification of Burns
How can the rule of nines help indicate whether a burn should be considered critical?
The rule of nines can provide a rough estimation of the percentage of body surface affected by a burn.
Which of the following best describes a third-degree burn?
- a burn that presents extremely painful blisters, redness, and swelling
- a burn that affects at least 25%% of the body surface area
- a burn that affects all of the layers of the epidermis
- a burn that affects the entire thickness of the integument
a burn that affects the entire thickness of the integument
Serious burns pose a significant threat to the body because they can __________.
lead to kidney failure and circulatory shock
Critical burn injuries will likely be treated with all of the following EXCEPT __________.
- pressing an ice-cold washcloth, towel, or pad to the burned area
- an intravenous supply of fluids
- providing the patient with thousands of extra nutritional calories
- significant infection control measures
pressing an ice-cold washcloth, towel, or pad to the burned area
Concept Map: Skin Regions and Layers
Surface skin cells regenerate from stem cells found in which specific region?
- in the papillary layer of the dermis
- in the deepest layer of the skin
- in the stratum corneum
- in the stratum basale
in the stratum basale
Which of the following layers is found only on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet?
- stratum basale
- stratum granulosum
- stratum lucidum
- stratum corneum
The integument's ability to resist tearing when stretched is largely due to the __________.
network of collagen fibers present in the reticular layer of the dermis
Which epidermal cells act as sensory touch receptors?
- tactile cells
- dendritic cells
Which layer is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue?
Layers B and C collectively form the __________.
Layer B is composed primarily of __________.
areolar connective tissue
Which of the following correctly describes a common feature of all structures labeled A through D in the figure?
Structures A, B, C, and D are located in the dermis.
What is the function of the structure at A?
to lubricate hair and prevent infection
Marie and Joan are the same height, but Marie weighs 25 pounds more than Joan. When they go hiking in cold weather, Joan needs two more layers of clothing than Marie to stay warm. Which of the following explains why?
- Marie has more dermal blood vessels, which constrict to increase blood flow to the core.
- Marie has more subcutaneous fat, which insulates the body's core.
- Marie has more subcutaneous fat, which is metabolized to provide warmth.
- Marie has a thicker epidermal layer, which insulates her body's core more efficiently.
Marie has more subcutaneous fat, which insulates the body's core.
What is the most common cell type in the epidermis?
Cell division would be most common among cells in which of the labeled layers?
Which skin-color-associated, pigment-producing cell is located in the labeled layer D?
Which stratum of the epidermis contains the stem cells responsible for regenerating the more superficial layers?
- stratum basale
- stratum corneum
- stratum spinosum
- stratum granulosum
Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?
- Ruffini body
- tactile cells
- Pacinian corpuscle
- free nerve ending
True or False: Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
True or False: Cells in the stratum corneum undergo mitosis to keep the layer thick and protective.
Which of the following is a layer of the epidermis found in thin skin?
- reticular layer
- papillary layer
- clear layer
- granular layer
Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been previously stretched and/or torn?
The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
The papillary layer of the dermis is composed of loosely packed connective tissue with numerous peg-like projections that provide a great deal of surface area connecting the dermis to the epidermis. Which of the statements below do NOT represent benefits provided by the papillary layer's anatomy?
- The high surface area allows for a stronger connection of dermis to epidermis.
- The looseness allows for easy separation of the dead cell layer of epidermis to be shed.
- The spaces in the connective tissue allow many small blood vessels to deliver nutrients and pick up waste diffusing from the superficial epidermal layers.
- The looseness allows for phagocytes to roam through the tissue and search for infection.
The looseness allows for easy separation of the dead cell layer of epidermis to be shed.
Respiratory failure can lead to a change in the color of the skin, which is more evident in light-skinned individuals. Which pigmentation factor is affecting this change?
- folic acid
Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following would indicate a liver disease such as hepatitis resulting in elevated bilirubin?
- The skin and sclera of the eyes appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.
- Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.
- The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
- It is impossible to suggest Addison's disease from an inspection of a person's skin.
The skin and sclera of the eyes appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.
Liliana's epidermal layer has been damaged. Which statement best explains the significance of this damage?
- It's significant because disrupting the epidermis will cause severe, sometimes life-threatening bleeding.
- It's not significant, because the cells in the epidermis are already dead.
- It's significant because cells in the epidermis give rise to all the cells in all the different skin layers.
- It's significant because the cells of the epidermis protect against evaporative water loss, UV radiation, and infection.
It's significant because the cells of the epidermis protect against evaporative water loss, UV radiation, and infection.
Liliana's cyanosis is clinically significant because:
It indicates that her blood is low in oxygen.
In alopecia, new hair growth stops because cell division is inhibited in the_________.
True or False: During the regressive phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.
True or False: New portions of a nail are produced at the cuticle.
The nails can provide signs of health and disease. Which of the following could be a sign of an underlying medical problem?
- The nails appear pink
- The nails are smooth and do not have ridges
- The nails appear yellow
- All of the listed responses are correct.
The nails appear yellow
Earwax is made by __________.
Which of the following represents a difference between eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands?
- Eccrine sweat glands are located deeper in the dermis than apocrine sweat glands.
- Eccrine sweat glands begin to function at puberty, while apocrine sweat glands function throughout life.
- Eccrine sweat glands use exocytosis to secrete their product, while apocrine sweat glands do not.
- The secretions of apocrine sweat glands contain more fat and protein than do the secretions of eccrine sweat glands.
The secretions of apocrine sweat glands contain more fat and protein than do the secretions of eccrine sweat glands.
The skin is permeable to organic solvents, such as acetone or paint thinner, because they ________.
can dissolve the lipid bilayers of epidermal and dermal cell plasma membranes
Susan sat out in the sun watching a baseball game. She developed small blisters on her unprotected shoulders and neck. What type of burn is represented by the formation of the blisters?
Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
- Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
- Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.
- Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.
- Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.
Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
You have learned that tape or adhesive bandages must be removed carefully from the skin on patients who are elderly to avoid tearing their fragile skin. What accounts for the fragility of their skin?
There are fewer collagen and elastic fibers in the reticular layer of the dermis as we age, contributing to wrinkling and increased susceptibility to tearing of the skin.
Your patient is upset to learn that the biopsy of a lesion on her skin is consistent with basal cell carcinoma. She has heard that skin cancer can be deadly. Which response to her distress is most appropriate?
- Basal cell carcinoma rarely spreads to other tissues. Removal of the lesion is curative in 99% of cases.
- You are right to be concerned, but I'm sure your doctor will order scans to determine if the cancer has spread.
- Basal cell cancers are aggressive, but immunotherapy is promising for many patients.
- Removal of the lesion will almost certainly rid you of the cancer, and then you can continue your life as usual.
Basal cell carcinoma rarely spreads to other tissues. Removal of the lesion is curative in 99% of cases.
True or False: When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns that cover approximately one-third or more of the body.
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