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The autonomic nervous system is closely integrated with the emotions of an individual. A sad event, sharp pain, or simple stress can bring about measurable changes in autonomic regulation of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. In addition to these obvious physiological signs,more subtle autonomic changes can occur in the skin. Specifically, changes in autonomic tone in response to external circumstances can influence the rate of sweat gland secretion and blood flow to the skin that may not be readily seen but can be measured. The galvanic skin response is an electrophysiological measurement of changes that occur in the skin due to changes in autonomic stimulation.The galvanic skin response, also referred to as electrodermal activity (EDA), is measured by recording the changes in galvanic skin resistance (GSR) and galvanic skin potential (GSP). Resistance, recorded in ohms (Ω\Omega), is a measure of the opposition to the flow of current from one electrode to another. Increasing resistance results in decreased current. Potential, measured in volts (V), is a measure of the amount of charge separation between two points. Increased sympathetic stimulation of sweat glands decreases resistance on the skin because of increased water and electrolytes on the skin surface.In this experiment you will record heart rate, respiration, and EDA/GSR while the subject is exposed to various conditions. Because “many” variables will be “recorded,” this process is often referred to as a polygraph.The goal of this exercise is to record and analyze data to observe how this process works. This is not a “lie detector test,” as its failure rate is far too high to provide true scientific or legal certainty. However, the polygraph can be used as an investigative tool.

The City of Imperial Falls contracts with Evergreen Waste Collection to provide solid waste collection to households and businesses. Until recently, Evergreen had an exclusive franchise to provide this service in Imperial Falls, which meant that other waste collection fi rms could not operate legally in the city. The price per pound of waste collected was regulated at 20 percent above the average total cost of collection.

Cost data for the most recent year of operations for Evergreen are shown below:

Administrative cost $400,000
Operating costs—trucks 1,280,000
Other collection costs 320,000

Data on customers for the most recent year are:

Households Businesses
Number of customers 12,000 3,000
Waste collected (tons) 4,000 12,000

The City Council of Imperial Falls is considering allowing other private waste haulers to collect waste from businesses, but not from households. Service to businesses from other waste collection firms would not be subject to price regulation. Based on information from neighboring cities, the price that other private waste collection firms will charge is estimated to be$0.04 per pound (= $80 per ton).

Evergreen’s CEO has approached the city council with a proposal to change the way costs are allocated to households and businesses, which will result in different rates for households and businesses. She proposes that administrative costs and truck operating costs be allocated based on the number of customers and the other collection costs be allocated based on pounds collected. The total costs allocated to households would then be divided by the estimated number of pounds collected from households to determine the cost of collection. The rate would then be 20 percent above the cost. The rate for businesses would be determined using the same calculation.

Based on cost and waste data from the most recent year, what would be the price per pound charged to households and to businesses by Evergreen for waste collection if the CEO’s proposal were accepted?


A 100100-kVA, 8000/2778000/277-V distribution transformer has the following resistances and reactances:

Rp=5 ΩRS=0.005 ΩXp=6 ΩXS=0.006 ΩRC=50 kΩXM=10 kΩ\begin{aligned} R_p & = 5\ \Omega & \quad \quad & R_S = 0.005\ \Omega\\ X_p & = 6\ \Omega & \quad \quad & X_S = 0.006\ \Omega\\ R_C & = 50\ \text{k}\Omega & \quad \quad & X_M = 10\ \text{k}\Omega \end{aligned}

The excitation branch impedances are given referred to the high-voltage side of the transformer.

(a) Find the equivalent circuit of this transformer referred to the low-voltage side.

(b) Find the per-unit equivalent circuit of this transformer.

(c) Assume that this transformer is supplying rated load at 277277 V and 0.850.85 PF lagging. What is this transformer’s input voltage? What is its voltage regulation?

(d) What are the copper losses and core losses in this transformer under the conditions of part (c)?

(e) What is the transformer’s efficiency under the conditions of part (c)?


Answered 1 year ago
Answered 1 year ago
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In the question transformer equivalent circuit is given referring to high voltage side, first we need to convert the equivalent circuit referring to low voltage side.

(a) Draw the equivalent circuit referring to low voltage side

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