Question

a. How do both people and animals learn responses through classical conditioning? b. How do generalization and discrimination help people and animals adapt to their environments? c. Which application of classical conditioning do you think is most likely to be unpleasant? Why?

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a) Based on associative learning. b) Discrimination can be very useful because it means that an animal (or a person) notices the differences between two or more stimuli so they can, for example, avoid harmful substances. Generalization helps animals (and people) adapt to new environments because it allows them to make the same response for different stimuli, for example, that is the basis of therapy for phobias (or therapy in general). c) Aversion therapy for instance, because it requires a person to be conditioned to dislike a certain stimulus because it’s repeatedly paired with an unpleasant stimulus.

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