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It flashes over the newswires: an airliner has crashed! What caused it? Could it have been avoided? Dr. Maxine Lubner devotes her career to answering these questions. As a teenager, Maxine was fascinated by flying. (1) Living near a small country airport, she and her father would ride out in their beach buggies and spontaneously race alongside the airplanes as the planes were slowing down to land. Maxine's "team" usually won. After studying psychology as andergraduate, Dr. Lubner earned a Ph.D. in socio-medical sciences, along with a pilot's license. She has studied human factors in airline accidents, as well as taught and designed programs in aviation safety. She has worked for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and on the faculties of various aeronautical colleges. (2) Professionals like Dr. Lubner design safety programs that are scientifically based, rather than arbitrarily determined. (3) In the 1970s, when commercial airline travel became more affordable, people prophesized that there would be an increase in accidents. Fortunately, this did not happen. In fact, airline accidents are quite rare. When they do happen, though, they are often due to a chain of events, rather than just a single incident or cause. The training of airline flight crews is a key to avoiding accidents. (4) Realizing that a single crash can result in many casualties, which could put an airline out of business, airlines and the FAA contrive to train crews in accident prevention and emergency response, even in the face of tight budgets. Pilots and crews must have keen decision-making and leadership skills. (5) A sudden emergency doesn't allow time for deliberation. Ground maintenance personnel also play an important role in averting crashes. (6) The tiniest haphazard event can cause disaster. (7) For example, if a repair crew unwittingly forgets to vacuum up a few metal splinters, these shards can eat through the insulation that surrounds electrical wires and cause a fire during a flight.

A number of years ago, the circumstances around an airplane crash led people to suspect foul play. Had a missile hit the plane? (8) Was a passenger involved in a premeditated bombing? An investigation revealed complex but accidental causes. It had been a hot day, so the air conditioning was operating while the plane waited on the ground to take off. This heated up the vapors in the fuel tank. (9) Coincidentally, the insulation on some of the electrical wires had worn off. When the fuel vapors reached those wires, it caused a terrible explosion. As a result of these findings, the position of fuel tanks on airliners has been moved, and there has been an increased emphasis on electrical maintenance. In another airplane accident, part of the engine came loose, and the plane spun out of control. (10) Fortuitously, an off-duty pilot was among the passengers. He helped work the throttles by hand, as the pilots controlled the plane's descent! This saved many lives.

If you are interested in a career in aviation, you might want to investigate the undergraduate degrees available at over fifty universities. Perhaps you will someday be in one of Dr. Lubner's classes.

Each sentence below refers to a numbered sentence in the passage. Write the letter of the choice that gives the sentence a meaning that is closest to the original sentence.

Professionals like Dr. Lubner design safety programs that are scientifically based, rather than \rule{2cm}{0.15mm} determined.

a. unknowingly

b. strangely

c. randomly

d. cleverly


At the beginning of 2018 , Terra Lumber Company purchased a timber tract from Boise Cantor for $3,200,000\$ 3,200,000. After the timber is cleared, the land will have a residual value of $600,000\$ 600,000. Roads to enable logging operations were constructed and completed on March 30, 2018. The cost of the roads, which have no residual value and no alternative use after the tract is cleared, was $240,000\$ 240,000. During 2018, Terra logged 500,000 of the estimated five million board feet of timber. Required: Calculate the 2018 depletion of the timber tract and depreciation of the logging roads assuming the units-of-production method is used for both assets.


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Answered 2 years ago
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The depletion per feet\textbf{The depletion per feet} is:

DepletionbaseEstimatedProduction=TotalcostResidualValueEstimatedProduction=$3,200,000$600,0005,000,000feet=$0.52perfeet\begin{align*} \frac{Depletion\:base}{Estimated\:Production} &= \frac{Total\:cost \:-\: Residual\:Value}{Estimated\:Production} \\ &= \frac{\$3,200,000 - \$600,000}{5,000,000 feet} \\ &= \$0.52 \:per\:feet \end{align*}

The depletion for 2018 is of:

Depletionperfeet×Production2018=$0.52×500,000=$260,000\begin{align*} Depletion\:per\:feet \times Production\:2018 &= \$0.52 \times 500,000 \\ &= \$260,000 \end{align*}

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