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Calculate the ratio of diffusion rates for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
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Diffusion: the ability of gases to mix with each other.

Effusion: the ability of gas to travel through a tiny opening (so small that molecules can only pass one at a time).
We have to calculate the ratio of diffusion rates for CO and CO$_2$.

The atomic mass of C is 12.011 g/mol

The atomic mass of O is 16.000 g/mol
$\textbf{The molar mass of CO and CO$_2$}$
$\mathrm{ M_{CO} = M_{C} + M_{O} = 12.011\ g/mol + 16.000\ g/mol = 28.011\ g/mol }$
$\mathrm{ M_{CO_2} = M_{C} + 2 \times M_{O} = 12.011\ g/mol + 2 \times 16.000\ g/mol = 44.011\ g/mol }$
We can calculate the ratio of diffusion rates using the equation for Graham’s law of effusion
$\begin{align*} \mathrm{\frac { Rate_{CO} } { Rate_{CO_2} } } &= \mathrm { \sqrt{ \frac { molar\ mass_{CO_2} } { molar\ mass_{CO} } } }\\ &= \mathrm{ \sqrt{ \frac { 44.011\ g/mol } { 28.011\ g/mol } } }\\ &= \sqrt{ 1.571 }\\ &= 1.253\\ &\approx {\color{#c34632}1.25} \end{align*}$
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