Question

Contrast the earliest civilizations, which rose in fertile river valleys, with the geographical conditions that influenced the rise of ancient Greek civilization.

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Early Greek civilization developed in the Balkan peninsula, southeast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Balkan peninsula is divided by the mountains into lots of isolated valleys, also, the coast is full of hundreds of rocky islands. That geographical shape and position had its advantages like safe bays for harbors and good trading routes, but disadvantages also. The main disadvantage is that they did not evolve in one united civilization but, because of geographical isolation by mountains and islands, into independent city-states called polis. Those city-states lacked mutual unity and often wage wars between themselves which made them vulnerable to outside invasions.

Civilizations that rose in fertile river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia had more fertile land so they were able to sustain more population. Also, they were not divided by geographical factors which enabled them to act more united and more easily and wage wars from which rose strong empires.

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