When two atoms move close to each other, the nucleus of one atom attracts the electrons of other atom as they are oppositely charged and the nucleus and the electrons of two atoms repel each other. As the two atoms move close to each other, the attraction beween the nucleus of one atom and the electrons of other atom increases and reaches maximum at a certain point. After that point, if molecule moves any closer the repulsions between the atoms increase and exceed the attractive force. At this point, the atoms form a covalent bond and a molecule forms.
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