Question

Ethyl alcohol has a boiling point of 78.0°C, a freezing point of -114°C, a heat of vaporization of 879 kJ/kg, a heat of fusion of 109 kJ/kg, and a specific heat of 2.43 kJ/kg·K. How much energy must be removed from 0.510 kg of ethyl alcohol that is initially a gas at 78.0°C so that it becomes a solid at -114°C?

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The amount of energy required per unit mass\textbf{per unit mass} to change the state (but not the temperature) of a particular material is its heat of transformation LL. Thus,

Qt=LmQ_t = L \cdot m

The heat of vaporization\textbf{The heat of vaporization} LVL_V is the amount of energy per unit mass that must be added to vaporize a liquid or that must be removed to condense a gas.

The heat of fusion\textbf{The heat of fusion} LFL_F is the amount of energy per unit mass that must be added to melt a solid or that must be removed to freeze a liquid.

If heat QQ is absorbed by an object that has mass mm, the object’s temperature change TfTiT_f - T_i is related to QQ by

Q=cm(TfTi)Q = c \cdot m \cdot (T_f - T_i)

Where cc is the specific heat of the material making up the object.

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