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Question

# For each of the following processes that show the formation of ions, complete the process by indicating the number of electrons that must be gained or lost to form the ion. Indicate the total number of electrons in the ion and in the atom from which it was made.a. $\mathrm{Al} \rightarrow \mathrm{Al}^{3+}$ b. $\mathrm{S} \rightarrow \mathrm{S}^{2-}$ c. $\mathrm{Cu} \rightarrow \mathrm{Cu}^{+}$ d. $\mathrm{F} \rightarrow \mathrm{F}^{-}$ e. $\mathrm{Zn} \rightarrow \mathrm{Zn}^{2+}$ f. $\mathrm{P} \rightarrow \mathrm{P}^{3-}$

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Every element has its number of protons listed in the periodic table. In this case, the number of protons is equal to the atomic number. Therefore, since every element is neutral because the number of protons counterbalances the number of electrons, by having the number of protons, we know the number of electrons, which is exactly the same.

• chemical elements in the periodic table have a number of protons equal to the number of electrons

Ions are charged species. Thus, if the ion has a positive charge, it means that this ion lost electrons. However, if the ion has a negative charge, it means that the ion gained electrons.

Thus, to find the number of electrons of the ions based on the atomic number and charge of the ion, we can state two rules:

• positive charge

number of electrons = atomic number - charge

The subtraction is because positive charges mean that electrons were lost, so the minus is suitable here.

• negative charge

number of electrons = atomic number + charge

The addition is because negative charges mean that electrons were gained, so the plus is suitable here.

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