Question

List the components of the nucleus and give a function for each.

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The nuclear envelope\textbf {nuclear envelope} is a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. Nuclear pores on the envelope allow the nucleus to communicate with the cytoplasm and RNA to pass from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. In addition, proteins from the cytoplasm pass through these pores into the nucleus.

The inside of the nucleus is a semi-liquid mass called the nucleoplasm\textbf {nucleoplasm}. The nucleoplasm contains the hereditary material chromatin. Chromatin condenses before cell division begins and forms structures called chromosomes. The reason for this is the equal distribution of hereditary material in both daughter cells.

The third part of the nucleus is a nucleolus\textbf {nucleolus}. The nucleolus is a central, dark part of the chromatin. This part is not bounded with a membrane. The nucleus can be considered to be the organelle of the nucleus. The function of the nucleolus is to create and organize the components of the ribosome. rRNA is produced in the nucleolus. Thanks to the pores on the nuclear envelope, proteins from the cytoplasm enter the nucleus and reach the nucleolus, where they fuse with the produced rRNA and form subunits of the ribosome.

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