## Related questions with answers

Sandy's Rock and Gravel Company wants to shift a mountain of gravel, estimated at about 20000 tons, from one side of their yard to the other. For this they intend to use a power shovel to fill a hopper, which in turn feeds a belt conveyor. The latter then transports the gravel to the new location. The shovel scoops up large amounts of gravel at first; however, as the gravel supply decreases, the handling capacity of the shovel also decreases because of the increased time required to move away from the hopper for a load and then return and dump. Roughly, then, we may estimate that the shovel's gravel handling rate is proportional to the size of the pile still to be moved, its initial rate being 10 ton/min. The conveyor, on the other hand, transports the gravel at a uniform 5 ton/min. At first the shovel will work faster than the conveyor, then slower. Hence, the storage bin will first accumulate material, then empty. (a) What will be the largest amount of gravel in the bin? (b) When will this occur? (c) When will the rates of bin input and output be equal? (d) When will the bin become empty?

Solution

VerifiedThe initial gravel handling rate of the shovel is $10$ $\mathrm{\dfrac{ton}{min}}$. It is also mentioned that the shovel’s gravel handling rate is directly proportional to the size of the pile still to be moved. So it shows that the removal of the sand using a shovel can be compared to the first order reaction.

The conveyor, on the other hand, works at the uniform rate of $5$ $\mathrm{\dfrac{ton}{min}}$. This shows that the working of the conveyor is independent of the amount of sand in the hopper. So it can be considered as the zero order reaction

We can represent above system as a

$\begin{align*} A \xrightarrow{1st order}R \xrightarrow{0-order}S\\ \end{align*}$

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