Water is normal depth? Explain how it is established in open channels?



The normal depth\textbf{normal depth} is flow depth in the channel when the slope, cross section, and surface roughness of the channel remain unchanged. When the slope and cross section are constant, the acceleration of the fluid reaches terminal velocity and then the uniform velocity is established. When there are changes in the above parameters, the flow remains uniform. The flow depth in uniform flow is normal depth.

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