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The phenomenon at play here is known as the Doppler effect, a fundamental principle in wave physics. When a car approaches an observer at a higher velocity, such as 30 m/s, the sound waves it emits experience a greater compression as they reach the observer. This compression leads to an apparent increase in pitch or frequency, which is what the observer perceives.
Conversely, when the car moves at a slower speed, like 12 m/s, the compression of sound waves is less significant, resulting in a smaller change in frequency. This effect can be likened to the change in pitch when a passing ambulance siren seems to rise in frequency as it approaches and then decreases as it moves away.
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