a. Both the Italian and northern European Renaissance emphasized basic Renaissance and humanistic ideas, but still some differences emerged. Although, like the Italian Renaissance, it advocated education, the northern European Renaissance placed more emphasis on religious themes and advocated religious and moral reforms based on ancient teachings. In contrast, the Italian Renaissance was more focused on new knowledge and scientific explanations. Also, the Italian Renaissance was more aimed at the upper class, while the northern European tended to be more accessible to the middle class.