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2.1 Understanding management, leadership and decision-making
Terms in this set (25)
What do managers do?
Organise and galvanise staff into implementing the strategies needed to achieve the business objectives.
They set objectives, analyse, lead, make decisions and review.
The management task of ensuring that staff working on different parts of a project are all working to the same time schedule and quality standards
Those working for a manager and therefore under his or her control
Managers need a clear idea of what they want to achieve. The objectives need to be set clearly and specifically - and then put into language that staff can understand. As staff can be temporary and part-time, objectives need to be boiled down to an easily-remembered phrase.
- analysing the underlying conditions the business faces (which may lead to new objectives being set)
- analysing the performance of staff
- analysing how effectively objectives are being met
Inspiring staff to achieve goals, in whatever way works best for the individual. Some may do this with charisma; others may inspire because of their personal achievements or commitment; finally there may be leadership through effective control and direction.
Managers may delegate to junior staff. The key is to understand that some decisions have to be made by specific deadlines - even though if this is too early to have all the facts available. A success rate above 50% is usually impressive.
This may be hard to do when the outcome from a decision has been poor, therefore it is excellent business practice to insist that every decision be reviewed - perhaps by a small team that should include someone who was not involved in the original decision.
What are autocratic managers?
- tell employees what to do and do not listen much to what workers have to say
- one-way, top-down communication
- tell workers what to do and do not want feedback
What are democratic managers?
- involve workers in decisions
- listen to employee's ideas and ensure people contribute to the discussion
- two-way communication
- ask for employee's opinions
- delegate decision-making power to junior staff, which can be approached by management by objectives or laissez-faire
What is management by objectives?
- manager agrees clear goals with staff, provides necessary resources and allows day-to-day decisions to be made by junior staff
- measure junior staff by the objectives that have been set
What is the laissez-faire approach?
- managers are to busy or too lazy to take the time to ensure junior staff know what to do and how to do it
- some may respond well to freedom, whereas some become frustrated
What is charismatic leadership?
A leader whose dynamic or magnetic personality makes people willing to follow. It is a widely held view that leaders need this to succeed but research does not support this.
What is paternalistic leadership?
- thinks and acts like a father
- does what is best for their staff
- may consult with employees but make the final decision
- believes that employees need direction but think it's important that they are supported and cared for properly
- interested in the security and social needs of staff
What is Blake's Grid?
A grid devised by Blake and Mouton that looks at two leadership behaviours: 'concern for people' and 'concern for performance'. It then grades people on these scales to judge what type of leader they are.
What does 9,9 mean on Blake's Grid?
- boss shows interest and trust in staff, with full belief in the synergy implied by successful teamwork
- determination to succeed makes it tough for any team member who isn't contributing effectively
What does 9,1 mean on Blake's Grid?
- fanatical drive to succeed, but on the leader's own terms
- staff are 'human resources' to be used or cast aside like any other resources
- linked to authoritarian leadership style
- perhaps too likely to succeed in the short term only; in the longer term, good staff will leave
What does 5,5 mean on Blake's Grid?
Middle of the road
- decent, honest attempt to get the best of both worlds, but struggling to succeed at either; too willing to trade being nice for being successful
- when times are good, investors may not realise it's all a bit second-rate
What does 1,9 mean on Blake's Grid?
- the boss is a really nice person, but staff may take advantage
- lack of urgency, poor productivity
- can only survive if monopoly power is keeping competition away from the business
What does 1,1 mean on Blake's Grid?
- neither concern for the staff, nor the performance of the business
- some may relate this to laissez-faire but this may be harsh as staff may work better without management
- no interest in the business or the people working for it
What are the strengths of Blake's Grid?
- it measures two factors: concern for people and concern for performance
- understands that some leaders are driven solely by results/success
- labels used made it easy for managers to visualise the type of person implied, so they can learn from the grid
What is the Tannenbaum Schmidt Continuum?
A continuum which suggests that people-centred leadership skills could be learned and developed. The scale relates to the degree to which staff are involved in decision-making. On the left is purely autocratic and the right is delegation.
What are the strengths of the Tannenbaum Schmidt Continuum?
- focuses on the boss' use of his or her people, giving detail about the range of approaches between the two extremes
- basis for analysis and action, such as persuading new section leaders to get training
- gives boss' a measure to judge their own approach, showing that 'tell' is an extreme approach
What are the differences between leaders and managers?
- managers put an idea or policy into action
- leaders are good at identifying the key issues facing the business, setting objectives, deciding what should be done etc.
- some say leaders should inspire staff
What is the effectiveness of different leadership styles?
- effectiveness depends on circumstances
- at a time of crisis, autocratic and strong paternalistic approaches can work
- sometimes leaders who have performed well during hard times get pushed aside afterwards, as the company needs a more democratic, cohesive leader for the good times
- different leadership styles may be needed in different countries
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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