AQA AS Level Sociology Education

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Terms in this set (...)

Compensatory policies
A range of educational policies designed to provide those experiencing cultural or deprivation with some support to help them have an equal chance of success
Free schools
Inspired by the Swedish equivalent, Gove's school run by parents
The prevent strategy
A group of strategies to prevent religious extremism
Apprenticeship
A combination of work experience and college based vocational learning
The wolf report
A report investigating the quality of vocational education which was very critical
Parental choice
Policies which have contributed to the idea that the education system is run parents or that parents have considerable power in shaping the education system
Conservative government
An era of policy production which focused on introducing marketisation, greater parental control and a national curriculum
League tables
As part of the 1988 education reform act, a public display of school results with the aim of making schools compete against each other and allows parental choice
Linear A Levels
Post 16 education which involves a two year course leading to a final assessment at the end of the two year period, reintroduced by the coalition government
Sure Start
A labour led policy with a range of ways to tackle material and cultural deprivation.
Vocational education
Education which focuses on preparation for employment
Marketisation policies
A group of policies which introduces market forces into education
Privatisation
The process of bringing private companies into education and aspiring to fee paying education
Acadamies
Schools which have some level of business involvement in their everyday running or organisation
ERA 1988
An important policy which introduced the national curriculum, league tables and parental choice
Comprehensive schooling
A one size fits all type of school, aimed at creating a level playing field for all pupils
Selective education
A school which selects students based on some specific criteria
OFSTED
An organisation which monitors the effectiveness of schools
Universalistic standards
Rules, values and standards that apply equally to all members of society, regardless of who they are
New right
A political theory which introduced competition and choice to the education system (marketisation)
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Where a prediction is made about a person or group comes true simply because it has been made
Postmodernism
An approach that stresses the importance of learner choice and school diversity
Specialist skills
Durkheim argued that this is one of the main functions of education for work in an industrialised, complex society
Myth
Bowles and Gintis argue this about meritocracy
Role allocation
Education acts as a 'sifting and sorting' mechanism in order to ensure what, according to Davis and Moore?
Parentocracy
Where a child's education is dependent upon the wealth and wishes of parents rather than the ability and efforts of pupils
Interactionalism
A sociological theory which focuses on the processes inside of school
Ideological State apparatus
Marxist term which argues that agencies such as schools serve to spread the dominant ideology and justify the power to the dominant social class
Meritocracy
A society in which status is achieved and rewarded by an individual's effort and ability
Correspondence principle
The idea that school mirrors work
Innate
The idea that we are born with certain features that are inherited
Labelling
The process of attaching a meaning or definition to a person
Material deprivation
A lack of the resources and wealth needed for educational success. Working class suffer from this
Polarisation
The second stage of the formation of a subculture, where students in higher sets become motivated, where as peer pressure causes the behaviour of students in low sets to deteriorate
Elaborated code
Language styles which have a wider vocabulary, are complex and have longer grammatical sentences
Subculture
The development of a culture separate from the rest of society. The group have their own set of values that are different from mainstream society
Immediate gratification
The sub cultural value that causes students to want to gain smaller rewards straight away rather than wait for larger ones
Fatalism
The sub cultural value of believing in fate e.g 'what will be, will be'
Collectivism
The subcultural value where the w/c believe being a part of a group is more important than acting as an individual
Cultural capital
The middle class advantage of having knowledge, values, tastes and experiences that lead to educational success
Economic capital
The middle class advantage of having enough wealth to give their children the best chance of educational success
Educational triage
The process by which teachers divide students into thee categories based on how likely they think they are to achieve a C at GCSE
Social capital
The middle class advantage of knowing people who can help 'open doors' for you: your connections and contacts
Male gaze
The way male pupils and teachers judge girls by their appearance
GIST/WISE
Policies within schools curriculums to encourage girls to take traditionally make subjects
Gender domains
Tasks and activities that are seen as male or female 'territory'
Double standards
When we apply one set of moral standards to one group, but a different set to another
Patriarchy
Male dominance
Equal Pay act 1970
Law that makes it illegal to pay men and women different wages for the same work
Role models
The people who influence us e.g. Into female dominated careers
Stereotypes
Assumptions that people make about others e.g. Based on gender
National curriculum
Policy that meant girls and boys could study the same subjects
Feminisation of education
The way in which education is dominated by females
Sex discrimination act 1975
Law that outlaws sex discrimination in employment
Meritocracy
All individuals given an equal opportunity to achieve
Radical feminism
They believe that although girls are achieving more, the system still remains patriarchal
Hegemonic masculinity
The dominance of heterosexual, masculine identity and the subordination of female and gay identities
Liberal feminism
They believe that women have made lots of progress and we need to continue this
Swann report
1985 report into the underachievement of ethnic minorities in school
Cultural deprivation
The theory that many working class and black children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the right culture needed for educational success
CRE
The commission for racial equality
EAL
Speaking English as a second language
Ethnocentric
Seeing or judging things in a biased way from the viewpoint of one particular culture
Multicultural
A society or institution that recognises and gives value to different cultures
Institutional racism
Discrimination that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate
Model minorities
Describes minority ethnic groups such as Chinese and Indian who achieve above average results