AQA Psychology (A-Level) - Approaches - The Psychodynamic Approach
Terms in this set (13)
Freud's theory of psychoanalysis
Freud believed behavior was determined by factors that were psychological, not biological or by the environment and made an assumption people are born with innate, basic needs and instincts and that behavior is under control by the unconscious mind.
The unconscious mind and its role
Freud believed that most of our everyday actions and behaviours are the product of our unconscious mind and are not controlled consciously. Such unconscious behaviours are revealed in 'slips of the tongue' known as Freudian slips, in creativity and in neurotic symptoms. Freud believed the mind prevents traumatic events emerging from the unconscious to reach conscious awareness, as such memories might cause anxiety, so the mind uses defence mechanisms to prevent the person becoming aware of them.
Freud divided the mind into three: the id, ego and superego, all demanding gratification, and are often in conflict.
Contains the libido (biological energy created by reproductive instincts). Operates according to the pleasure principle - demands immediate gratification irrespective of circumstances.
Example of how the id works
If a person is hungry, it demands they eat there and then.
Mediates between the impulsivity of the id and the reality principle (reality of the external world). Also must compromise between the demands of the id and the super-ego, impulsive and moralistic respectively.
Example of how the ego works
May delay gratifying the id until the appropriate opportunity to do so arrises.
Divided into the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience is the internalisation of societal rules. It determines which behaviours are permissible and causes feelings of guilt when rules are broken.
Example of how the super-ego works
If a person is going to steal something, it will inform them of how it is breaking the law and going against societal rules.
What a person strives towards, and is most probably determined by parental standards of good behaviour.
Upon the chance an individual is faced with a situation that elicits the inability to react or deal with it rationally, these are triggered. With it being encompassed by behavior, these, ergo, operate unconsciously and distort reality in order to reduce anxiety.
What do defence mechanisms do and what are the three types?
The individual prevents themselves becoming aware of any unpleasant feelings and thoughts related to the (traumatic) situation concerned, and cover repression, denial and displacement.
Five stages in the development of the personality which revolve around the development of the way in which we express our sexual tension and feelings.