Terms in this set (49)
The Austrian born leader of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party) otherwise known as the Nazi party. He fought in WWI, was dissatisfied with the Treaty of Versailles and rose to power on the back of his ability to speak to an audience, and promises to fix the problems faced by Germany. The author of Mein Kampf, he was responsible for the beginning of WW2 in 1939, and also the Holocaust, the attempted genocide of European Jews.
The NSDAP, or National Socialist German Workers Party. They were formed in 1920 and existed as a political entity until 1945. The party emerged during the tumultuous post-war years in Germany and fanatically opposed communism. They campaigned on the basis of creating a fair Germany for workers, racial purity and German nationalism. Adolf Hitler became the party chairman in 1921.
This man was the head of the Nazi Ministry for Propaganda. He was responsible for the creation and dissemination of mass propaganda to make the German public believe Nazi attitudes. He created a small, inexpensive radio to put in the homes of all German's to hear Hitler's speeches. His propaganda techniques were legendary and he believed that if you repeated a lie long enough, people would believe it.
This man was the leader of the SS, which began as Hitler's private bodyguard. Over time, the SS evolved into an elite military unit who were in charge of many aspects of the Nazi State. This man was responsible for the building of concentration camps and also the use of mobile extermination squads. He personally directed the Final Solution and was responsible for the death of millions of Jews and other members of German society.
Often known as 'the one decent Nazi' this man was the architect of the Nazi government. His role was initially as the architect of major Nazi projects such as the Cathedral of Light. However, he later became Minister for Armaments and was responsible for arming the German forces during the last stages of WWII.
Night of the Long Knives
This was a purge that took place from June 30 to July 3rd in 1934. The purge targeted various political enemies of Hitler and the Nazi party, most particularly, Ernst Rohm, the leader of the SA. Hitler believed that Rohm was planning to use the SA in a coup to overthrow him and take the leadership of the Nazi part for himself. In all, hundreds of people were murdered over the course of these nights, removing them from positions of power and leaving no real opposition left.
The Night of Broken Glass, was an anti-Semitic pogrom that took place on the 9-10 of November in 1938. It was a series of targeted attacks against Jewish places of worship and business. The Nazi party was complicit in its organisation, yet sent many of its soldiers and officers to take part in plain clothes. Thousands of Jewish businesses were destroyed and burnt, along with hundreds of synagogues. It was a turning point in the Nazi regime as it was the first time there was a mass uprising of violence against the Jews.
The term used to describe the specific areas in cities and towns in which Jewish people were forced to live. People were forcefully removed from their homes and made to live in squalid conditions in these places. They would be placed under the control of a Jewish Council and people would be regularly deported to either concentration camps, labour squads and later in the war, death camps.
Camps that were initially setup to house the political enemies of the Nazi government. The first one established was Dachau, near Munich in 1933. All subsequent camps were modelled on the same basic layout. The camps were under the controls of the SS and Heinrich Himmler. They would force prisoners to work as members of forced labour gangs and complete projects that would benefit the German war machine.
Beer Hall Putsch
This was Hitler's ill-fated first attempt to seize power in 1923. Many prominent members of the Weimar government were meeting in a beer hall in Munich. Hitler used the support of General Ludendorff, a WWI hero, to try to overthrow the government by arresting them at gunpoint with the use of his loyal SA. Hitler was arrested after this attempted revolution and then spent 9 months in jail where he wrote his book Mein Kampf.
This group was launched in 1922 and became compulsory for all children to be part of in 1936. The object of the group was to stream young boys and girls into different activities that would prepare them for the Aryan future of Germany. Boys were taught military discipline and how to shoot, girls were taught how to be good mothers and take care of the home. The groups were divided by age and were essential for the successful indoctrination of German children.
This was the government of Germany that existed from 1919 to 1933. It was a Republican Democracy with universal suffrage from the age of 20 onwards. The government was faced with all kinds of problems, including the rise of paramilitaries, the growth of communism and the rise of nationalistic extremism. They were blamed for the signing of the Treaty of Versailles and were often referred to as the November Criminals.
The National Socialist Workers Party, they become commonly known as the Nazi Party. The party began as simply the German Workers Party. Hitler was tasked with investigating them due to anti-government activity. In 1920, Hitler advocated that they change their name to the National Socialist Workers Party. They then published the 25 points of National Socialism.
This was the German seat of parliament located in Berlin. It housed the German Parliament until 1933 when it was severely damaged in a fire.
This law was passed after the Reichstag Fire of 27 November 1933. This decree nullified many of the civil liberties and rights of German citizens. This became the basis for the Nazi Party to sieze power and arrest and imprison anyone who stood against them.
This act enabled the Nazi Party to pass laws without discussion in the Reich parliament. It followed after the Emergency Decree and gave immense power to Hitler and the Nazi Party. The combined effect of this, and the Emergency Decree, effectively ended Weimar Germany.
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty signed in 1919 by the major powers involved in World War I. It was written and signed at the Paris Peace Conference and its intent was to punish Germany for starting the war. The Weimar government was forced to sign the treaty and became very unpopular because of this. The treaty forbid Germany from rearming, forming alliances, and blamed them entirely for WWI. They were also forced to pay massive amounts in reparations.
The Schutzstaffel were originally formed as Hitler's elite bodyguard. Under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler, it grew to one of the largest and most powerful organisations in Nazi Germany. They were in charge of the concentration camp system and were responsible for the death of millions of people in these camps.
Otherwise known as the Brownshirts or Stormtroopers, these men formed a paramilitary organisation that were used as muscle during the early stages of Hitler's political campaign. They were under the control of Ernst Rohm and became less powerful after the purge of The Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
Happening on the 27th November 1933, this event led to massive damage to the Reichstag Parliament building. This allowed the Nazi party to blame the fire on communists and enact the Emergency Decree and then the Enabling Act.
The massive inflation that took place after World War I, particularly in the mid to late 1920s. The value of the German mark plummeted and their money became all but worthless.
Showing hatred towards Jewish people.
The plan put into action by Hitler and the Nazi party from 1942 onwards. Their goal was so systematically exterminate all European Jews. The plan was implemented in multiple stages including mobile extermination squads, ghettos, mass deportations and lastly, extermination camps using gas chambers.
The German term for the annexation of Austria in 1938. The union of Austria and Germany had been forbidden under the treaty of Versailles, however due to appeasement by British PM Chamerlain, Hitler was allowed to annex Austria. This was
A crisis that developed in 1938 and led to the annexation of Czechoslovakia by Germany. Nazi supporters in the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia demanded unity with Germany. This led to Hitler threatening to invade the country using military force. To trey and stop this, the Munich Agreement was signed by Britain, France and Germany. This followed the policy of appeasement and allowed Hitler to occupy the Sudetenland.
These were the secret police of the Nazi State. They were formed in 1933 under the leadership of Hermann Goering. However, they then merged with the SS under Heinrich Himmler in 1934. Every person in Germany was under the watchful eye of the Gestapo and they used violence and fear to keep the population in check.
The Laws put in place in 1935 to limit Jewish lifestyle and freedoms in Nazi Germany. Jews were targeted directly in these laws due to the Nazi belief of racial purity. The laws stated that Jews could not be German citizens, a ban on sexual relations between Jews and other Germans, and various political and economic limits. Over time, the laws were expanded with further laws that included things such as where Jews could live and what jobs they could have.
Reich Chamber of Commerce
This was the organisation setup in 1933 that was to handle the censorship of all media and publications iN nazi Germany. Administered by Joseph Goebells, all people who wished to publish material had to become members. The Chamber would then read and censor any material before release. Movies, newspapers, books, radio, any form of media fell under this form of censorship.
The agreement that was signed between Britain, France and Germany in 1938. It permitted the Nazi annexation of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. It was a failed act of appeasement and instead of preventing war, it allowed Hitler to take more land and prepare for World War II. The area taken by Hitler was on the border between Austria and Czechoslovakia and contained a large number of German speakers.
These were groups of young Germans who formed alternative youth clubs in protest of the Hitler Youth. They emerged in Germany in the 1930s and evaded membership of the Hitler Youth, despite the fact that it was compulsory. Members were often rounded up by the Gestapo and had their heads shaved to shame them. In 1944, Himmler ordered a crackdown on such groups and many of the leaders were publicly hanged.
Dawes and Young Plans
The two plans put in place by the US to try and fix the economic problems faced by Germany in the wake of World War I. They provided loans and also limited the amount and frequency of reparations payments that Germany had to pay due to the Treaty of Versailles. They displayed the general attitude that the Treaty had been a mistake and that Germany needed assistance to recover properly.
Cathedral of Light
The massive event feature of the Nuremberg Rallies. This space used huge searchlights to project beams of light into the air behind Hitler. The illumination effect was amazing and was developed by Albert Speer. The space was featured prominently in the propaganda film The Triumph of the Will.
The German word for the mobile extermination squads that were used in the early stages of World War II. When Germany invaded Poland, these squads would follow behind the army and then begin to muder any people who were deemed to be 'a-social.' This included Jews, gypsies, the mentally disabled etc. They firstly dug mass graves and simply shot people so they would fall into the graves. Following this, they created gassing vans that would kill people using carbon monoxide.
The famous film director who was responsible for some of the most popular Nazi propaganda films such as 'The Triumph of the Will.'
A German term that simply means 'leader.' It was a combination of the position of Chancellor and President and was created by Hitler in 1934 when President Hindenburg died.
The German concept of 'Living Space.' This was a term used heavily by Hitler in the lead up to World War II. Hitler believed that due to the land lost of Germany after World War I, they needed to take this land back and expand to their original, pre World War I borders. This idea led to the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia and finally the invasion of Poland.
The Free Corps a right wing paramilitary group that was formed during the Weimar Republic. They were mostly made up of ex soldiers and were used by the German government to crush rebellions led by groups such as the Spartacists.
Communist revolutionaries in post-World War I Germany, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht, who were dedicated to bringing a socialist revolution to Germany. They were part of Germany's revolution against the unpopular Weimar government. The movement ended when both of their leaders were killed by the Freikorps in 1919.
The Nazi commandant of Auschwitz, the largest of the extermination camps. He was instrumental in testing and refining methods of mass extermination that were used during the Holocaust. He was captured by the allies in 1946 and sentenced to death during his trial. He was hanged for war crimes.
The country invaded by the Nazis in September of 1939. This led to the allied powers declaring war and the outbreak of World War II.
Policy of Appeasement
Policy whereby Great Britain and France permitted Hitler's territorial expansion between 1935 and 1938 in exchange for a promise that his demands were limited to German speaking territories. Culminated in the signing of the Munich Pact on September 29, 1938. This allowed Hitler to annex the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia.
Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1937 to 1940. He was responsible for the policy of appeasement towards Hitler. This led to him being heavily criticised due to his failed attempts to prevent the outbreak of war.
The first Chancellor of Weimar Germany. Leader of the Social Democratic Party, the biggest party in the Reichstag after the end of WWI and the abdication of the Kaiser.
An attempted take over of the Weimar Republic in 1920, led by Wolfgang Kapp. The coup took place in Berlin and forced the government to flee the city. After a few days, the coup failed, due to German workers launching a general strike and civil service workers refusing to work for the illegal government.
An important industrial area of Germany that was rich in coal deposits. It was occupied by the French in 1923, when the Germans fell behind on reparations payments for the Treaty of Versailles. The German government took a stance of passive resistance and the Dawes Plan of 1924 allowed for Germany to continue making payments and French troops left the area.
Arbeit Macht Frei
A German phrase that roughly translates we work will make you free. This was inscribed on the gates of many concentration camps and upheld the illusion that they were simply 'work camps.'
Formed in 1934 by German Protestants this church pledged to resist the evils of the Nazi regime and to be faithful to God regardless of the consequences. One of their influential leaders, Dietrich Bonhoeffer preached anti-Nazi messages in an underground seminary. He was arrested for involvement in a plot to assassinate Hitler and was then killed in a concentration camp.
The White Rose
A group of young German students who protested against the Nazi treatment of Jews and others. They did this by publishing and distributing illegal leaflets that criticised the Nazi regime. They were loosely led by Hans and Sophie Scholl, two students from Munich. Most of the members of this group were eventually rounded up and executed. Hans and Sophie Scholl were caught throwing leaflets down a central university stairwell. They were both arrested, tried and beheaded.
'My Struggle', a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924, in which he set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany. The book led to the rise in popularity of the Nazi Party as more people began to read and agree with Hitler's ideas. It became compulsory reading for all school students when Hitler came to power in 1933.