Social Class and educational achievement key terms


Terms in this set (...)

material deprivation
lacking the money or resources that are necessary to doing well in education
cultural deprivation
lacking appropriate norms, values, skills and knowledge that are necessary to doing well in education
cultural capital
the norms, values, skills and knowledge possessed by middle class parents which give their children an advantage in education
restricted speech code
A simplified language style consisting of limited vocabulary and poor grasp of grammar
elaborated speech code
A complex and precise language style used to convey ideas and means that are different from those in use around us.
social capital
The social connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence
immediate gratification
When people make economic decisions based on short-term wants rather than long-term needs
deferred gratification
forgoing something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future
the Underclass
the lowest social stratum. consists of the poorly educated, long term unemployed, largely welfare dependent. Many live on council estates, cut off from ordinary society
16-24 yr olds not in employment, education or training. The young underclass
Counter School Culture
A subculture which resists the mainstream values of the school. Status is gained within it by 'aving a laff'
The Ideal Pupil
Howard Becker's concept describing how middle class teachers see middle class pupils
skilled choosers
Middle class parents who use their cultural capital to research schools, making the most of 'choice' policies
disconnected choosers
working class parents who simply send their children to the local school.
Dianna Reay
Found that cultural capital meant that middle class mothers were more involved with the education system than working class mothers
Stephen Ball
Argued that middle class parents and the best schools form an 'alliance' (the school-parent alliance)
Leon Fenstein
Found that parental income is correlated with children's language ability - for every £100 increase in parental income, language ability improved by 3%
Pierre Bourdieu
The French founder of cultural capital theory: middle class habitus gives their children an unconscious advantage in life.