21 terms

Unit 2 Coastal Landforms

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Cliffs
A steep headland where constant erosion takes place at the base
Wave-cut platforms
A wave-cut platform, or shore platform is the narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff
Headland
More resistant rock that protrudes into the sea
Bays
Softer rock which form indentations in the land
Caves
A hollow opening at the base of a cliff, formed by hydraulic action expanding a fault or line of weakness
Stumps
An isolated rock base found off a headland, only visible at low tide
Stacks
An isolated column of rock found off a headland, not attached to the cliff
Arches
An opening through a headland, which leaves a bridge of rock over the sea
Beaches
The area of land between high and low tide, made up of sand, pebbles or silt
Spits
A long, narrow stretch of pebbles and sand which is attached to the land at one end
Longshore drift
The movement of beach sediment down a coastline in a zig-zag motion
Constructive waves
Frequently breaking, long and low waves found on gentle beaches
Destructive waves
Infrequently breaking, high waves found on steep beaches
Fetch
The distance over which the wind blows over open water
Coastal recession
The process by which a coastline is eroded and moves inland
Soil creep
The slowest downhill movement of soil
Slumping
The rotational slip of a large area of land moving down a slope
Hydraulic action
The pressure of water being thrown at the cliffs by waves and the compression of air in rock cracks
Corrasion / Abrasion
Sand and pebbles being thrown against the cliff face chipping off pieces of rock from the cliff
Corrosion / Solution
A chemical reaction between chalk and limestone and the salts and other acids in the seawater
Attrition
The reduction in size and smoothing of pebbles on a beach, as they knock into and erode one another