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A range of all for English Language A LEVEL AQA
Terms in this set (53)
Personal (I, we, she)
Possessive (my, yours, ours)
Relative (who, whom)
Concrete [countable/non-countable] (objects that physically exist)
Material (describe actions/events)
Relational (state of well-being)
Mental (perception of speech or thought)
Static (situation stays the same)
Primary (tense - do, be, have)
Modal (certainty - could, should, must, can)
Placing a suffix (morpheme at the end) or prefix (morpheme at the beginning) to a root word.
Two words placed together to create a new one.
The removal of parts of a word to create a new.
Mixing two parts of different words together.
POSITIVE effect over time on a word.
NEGATIVE effect on a word over time.
Two two opposites.
E.G: Ice and fire.
Lexical items with equivalent meanings
Words with opposite meanings
Closed class of words that have a specific job.
Coordinating (compound - and)
Subordinating (complex - although)
It's the teacher's responsibility to teach children Standard English
Asked three different people in three different typical class stores something which resulted in them saying "the forth floor"
Estuary English is a different dialect and accent.
Rosewarne was very misguided as they were just dialect levelling.
Kerswill - losing features to make communication between the different dialects to be enabled.
Fishermen kept their A&D different to distance selves from tourists.
Believes there are a lot of motivations for making up the different types of English language.
The main one being "It's a badge of identity - it unites people. It's a cohesive force. It keeps the insiders in and the outsiders out."
Giles & Coupland
Accommodation involves deciding how to use their language to make it easy for the receiver to understand or distance their language to them.
Primary importance of gender lies not in the differences between all males and females, but the differences that lie within gender groups.
Convergence: we adjust our speech to "accommodate" the person we are addressing
Divergence: occurs when people's speech styles move further apart, emphasising their differences
Deborah Cameron & Jennifer Coates (1988)
Woman assigned to a social class on basis of their husbands' jobs, income, etc...
Men always being taken as the norm
Women's variations seen as divergent
Gender raised as a factor influencing variation above all factors
The deference model.
Command VS Compromise.
Zimmerman & West
The dominance model.
Dubois & Crouch (1976)
Men use more tag questions in their research.
Women's use of repeated tag questions are an effective way to gain conversational power as opposed to a marker of any lack of power
Looked at both genders and expertise as variables in conversations
Tag questions can be either modal or affective
Cameron, McAlinden & O'Leary (1989)
Men and women use the same number of tag questions.
O'Barr & Atkins (1980)
Women's language is powerless language
Man made Language.
Research found there is such a thing as Women made Language.
The Myth of Mars & Venus.
Differences between men's and women's speech style are sought out for, promoted by academia and popular press, frame our perceptions, bias our understanding of the issue, reinforce the purported styles and render a scientific exploration of the issue very difficult indeed.
Potential (any need for the new word)
Diffusion (a small group of people using it)
Implementation (a larger scale using it)
Codification Model (it being placed in the OED)
Chen (1968 & 1972)
Gradual then accelerating change before levelling off - S-Curve model
How changes weaken exponentially across a particular geographical region & across different social groups.
Theory of Lexical Gaps
A word will be invented, converted or borrowed in order to fill a gap in usage as well as a phonological gap in our language.
Language changes primarily through contact with other languages
Changes to suit its users
Parodies of prescriptivism.
Random Fluctuation Theory.
Language changes owing to its instability.
Random errors and events within the language system as a response of the ever changing context of language use and it's users.
The Unfolding of Language.
Economy: the tendency to save effort and is behind the short-cut speakers often take in pronunciation.
No golden age.
No clarity as to when language was perfect (at standardised level)
Born with ability to learn
Stage 1 (-6) Scribbles
Stage 2 (7-8) write how speak. In small declaratives.
Stage 3 (9-mid teens) learn difference between speaking and writing. More complex
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