AQA AS Hazards Craven
Terms in this set (24)
In the context of hazards, adaptation is the attempts by people or communities to live with hazard events. By adjusting their living conditions, people are able to reduce their levels of vulnerability. For example, they may avoid building on sites that are vulnerable to storm surges but stay within the same area.
A view of a hazard event that suggests that people cannot influence or shape the outcome, therefore nothing can be done to mitigate against it. People with such an attitude put in place limited or no preventative measures. In some parts of the world, the outcome of a hazard event can be said to be 'God's will'.
Events which are perceived to be a threat to people, the built environment and the natural environment. They occur in the physical environments of the atmosphere, lithosphere and the hydrosphere.
This is the way in which an individual or a group views the threat of a hazard event. This will ultimately determine the course of action taken by individuals or the response they expect from governments and other organisations.
Community preparedness/risk sharing
This involves prearranged measures that aim to reduce the loss of life and property damage through public education and awareness programmes, evacuation procedures, the provision of emergency medical, food and shelter supplies and the taking out of insurance.
The distribution of a hazard through time.
Integrated risk management
The process of considering the social, economic and political factors involved in risk analysis; determining the acceptability of damage/disruption; deciding on the actions to be taken to minimise damage/disruption.
The assessment of the size of the impact of a hazard event.
The ability to give warnings so that action can be taken to reduce the impact of hazard events. Improved monitoring, information and communications technology have meant that predicting hazards and issuing warnings have become more important in recent years.
The effects of a hazard event that result directly from that event. For a volcanic eruption these could include lava and pyroclastic flows. In an earthquake, ground shaking and rupturing are primary effects.
The sustained ability of individuals or communities to be able to utilise available resources to respond to, withstand and recover from the effects of natural hazard events. Communities that are resilient are able to minimise the effects of the event, enabling them to return to normal life as soon as possible.
These are the effects that result from the primary impact of the hazard event. In volcanic eruptions these include flooding (from melting ice caps and glaciers) and lahars. In an earthquake, tsunamis and fires (from ruptured gas pipes) are secondary effects.
These are formed by volcanic ash mixing with water and flowing downhill. Essentially they are volcanic mudflows. In the Philippines, if a typhoon occurs after a volcanic eruption, then lahars can result.
Molten rock (magma) flowing onto the surface. Acid lava solidifies very quickly, but basic lava (basaltic) tends to flow some distance before solidifying (for example, on the Hawaiian Islands).
The layer of the Earth which consists of the crust and the upper section of the mantle. It is this layer which is split into a number of tectonic plates.
Also known as nuées ardentes, formed from a mixture of hot gas (over 800°C) and tephra. After ejection from the volcano they can flow down the sides of a mountain at speeds of over 700 km per hour. Some volcanologists apply the term nuées ardentes when the cloud is formed only from hot gas.
The solid matter ejected by a volcano into the air. It ranges from volcanic bombs (large) to ash (fine).
As the crust of the Earth is constantly moving, there tends to be a slow build-up of stress within the rocks. When this pressure is released, parts of the surface experience, for a short period, an intense shaking motion. This is an earthquake.
In earthquake-prone areas buildings and other structures can be fitted with devices such as shock absorbers and cross-bracing to make them more earthquake proof.
Giant sea waves generated by shallow-focus underwater earthquakes, violent volcanic eruptions, underwater debris slides and landslides into the sea.
Mitigation strategy is designed to reduce or eliminate risks to people and property from natural hazards. Money spent prior to a hazardous event to reduce the impact of it can result in substantial savings in life and property following the event.
A rapid rise in sea level in which water is piled up against a coastline to a level far in excess of the normal conditions at high tide. Usually produced during the passage of a tropical storm when wind-driven waves pile up water against a coastline combined with the ocean heaving upwards as a result of much lower air pressure.
Chemicals sprayed on to fires in order to slow them down. They are composed of nitrates, ammonia, phosphates, sulphates and thickening agents.
Pyrophytes are plants adapted to tolerate fire. Methods of survival include thick bark, tissue with a high moisture content and underground storage structures.
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