Social Influence- AS Level Psychology
Terms in this set (32)
Informational social influence
An individual doesn't know what the 'correct' way to behave in an unfamiliar situation, so they look for information to establish how to act
Normative social influence
An individual conforms with the views of the majority to be accepted
Believing the majority's views and accepting them as your own due to informational social influence
An individual goes along with the beliefs and actions of a group due to normative social influence
Conforming to fit a social role
Situational factors affecting conformity
The social situation a person is in that leads then to conform such as group size, unanimity and task difficulty.
Dispositional factors affecting conformity
Internal characteristics such as confidence or gender
Effect of group size on conformity
Very small majorities are easier to resist however conformity doesn't increase the larger the group size is past a certain point
Effect of unanimity on conformity
Unanimity increases conformity, having a dissenter decreases conformity
Effect of task difficulty
The more difficult the task the higher the conformity levels due to confidence
Effect of proximity on obedience
The closer the proximity of the victim, the lower he obedience however the closer the proximity of the authority figure the higher the obedience
Behaviour in accordance to socially accepted conventions set by the people around you
Social influence where an authority figure gives instructions or orders to abide by
Effect of uniform on obedience
Uniform contributes to a belief in the legitimacy of authority so obedience increases
Effect of location on obedience
When a location is more legitimate/professional, obedience increases
When a person believes they are carrying out the wishes/orders of another person, they feel less responsibility for those actions
When an individual begins with an autonomous way of thinking but then become obedient, where they enter an agentic state
Legitimacy of authority
The right and acceptance of authority figures, increases obedience levels
Someone who was very disciplined as a child may have this, which means they are very obedient to authority figures such as the police
'Fascism' scale which measures how much of an authoritarian personality someone has
Makes people more resistant to conforming
Locus of control
How much personal control you believe you have over events in your life, can be internal or external
Factors that encourage minority influence
Social impact theory factors
-strength, numbers, immediacy
As the minority gain support, more people change from the majority viewpoint to the minority until eventually it becomes the majority
When people forget the origin of a message that started with the minority
A= Conformity on an unambiguous task
P= Independent groups lab experiment, there was 1 real participant in a group of 8, the others all being confederates. They had to judge line lengths by saying which comparison line matched the standard line. The PP went last and the previous confederates all gave the same wrong answer.
F= In control trials, the PP gave the wrong answer 0.7% of the time. In the other trials, the PP conformed to the majority 37% of the time, with 75% conforming at least once
C= Control showed that the task was easy, so the 37% must have conformed due to normative social influence
E= Controlled variables establishing cause and effect, and the test can be repeated giving it a high reliability. However low ecological validity and the PP were deceived
A= Conformity to social roles
P=Male students volunteered to become prisoners or guards in a mock prison where they were randomly assigned to a position. The guards were given uniforms and basic orders and the prisoners were arrested at their homes and given numbers
F= The guards conformed to their role by becoming aggressive and even abused the prisoners. The prisoners became depressed and passive. The study was stopped because the prisoners became very distressed
C= Social roles can influence behavior and people tend to conform quickly.
Reicher and Haslam
Investigated conformity to social roles, the results of this oppose Zimbardo's findings as the guards failed to form a united group and the prisoners became a strong unit. This shows the PPs didnt conform to social roles.
A= Obedience to authority
P= Conducted lab experiments at Yale Uni with 40 male pps to see if they would obey orders to shock someone in a separate room. The confederate learner was connected to a fake shock generator. The voltage ranged from 15 to 450 volts (lethal).
F= 65% of pps administered 450V and none stopped before 300V. Pps showed signs of stress; sweating, trembling etc.
C= Ordinary people will obey orders even if it against their conscience
Conducted a field experiment into the legitimacy of authority. Researchers ordered passers-by to do something, either in normal clothes or a uniform. People were more likely to obey someone in a uniform because they seem to be a legitimate authority figure
A= Minority influence
P= Groups of 6 women at a time judges the colour of 36 slides, all of which were blue. Two of the six were confederates which either consistently or inconsistently called the slides green
F= In the control group the pps called the slides green 0.25% of the time, in the consistent condition 8.4% called the slides green with 32% calling a slide green at least once. In the inconsistent condition, the slides were only called green 1.25% of the time
C= The confederates were in the minority but they influenced the real participants, having more influence when they were consistent.
E= Lacks ecological validity, however was a lab experiment so variables controlled and a causal relationship can be established.
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