AQA A-LEVEL English language theorists
Terms in this set (56)
Sapir and Whorf
Language precedes our thoughts and controls them.
Language change occurs due to random errors and events.
Substratum Theory_ foreign borrowings as well as cultural lexis are transported to our language.
these build up with waves of immigration and cultural contact.
new words are created for functional use. (new products, inventions and discoveries)
new language use begins slowly, grows exponentially and then settles at a stable level.
the dominance of major languages over other, usually indigenous, languages.
Braj B Kachru.
coined term 'world englishes'
new language enters through geographic language, based on proximity to new groups.
study at a secondary school.
found that majority of people believed that language changed with age.
Different ways to look at age.
chronological, biological, social.
all affect speech.
Not all texting done by children.
abbreviations not new or created by children.
abbreviations show knowledge of spelling.
texting is good literacy practice.
investigated influences on young people's language.
Vivian De Klerk
Young people have freedom to challenge linguistic norms, seek to establish new identities.
The way language is used within a particular societal class affects the way people assign significance and meaning to the things about which they are speaking.
Challenged deficit model.
Studied phonological variable 'h'
Studied social class and regional dialect, research into both phonological and grammatical variables in Norwich.
Studied language use in reading amongst young people.
James and Lesley Milroy.
Studied language of working class communities in Belfast.
The stronger the social network the greater use of vernacular forms.
Drew and Heritage.
Summarized differences between everyday conversion and workplace talk.
Describes how speakers change their language to resemble that of their listener.
Developed a four-part structure for service encounters based on studies of encounters in a post office, travel agency and gift shop.
offer of service.
request for service.
Herbert and Straight.
Compliments tend to flow from those of higher rank to those of lower rank.
The shift from work talk to personal talk is always initiated by the highest-ranking person in the room.
Once you start work, you become a member of a professional community, which has a set of professional practices and shares specialist knowledge and certain values.
Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.
Rubin and Smith.
Lecturer accent experiment.
perception of accent affected by physical appearance of speaker.
Summarized that there are six contrasts between male and female language:
Status v support.
Independence v intimacy.
Advice v Understanding.
Information v Feelings.
Orders v Proposals.
Conflict v Compromise.
More nicknames for men, more are positive than for women.
many names for women have sexual overtones.
standard unmarked terms are usually male.
women have negative semantic space.
language embodies sexual inequality.
More negative words for women, semantic derogation, female terms more negative.
Androcentric language. bias towards men in language.
'man' is generic term, implies importance.
Learning culturally defined gender roles is part of socialisation, gender roles are taught through a range of agents: family, friends, school, media, work, literature.
Experiment found that when invited to speak to a group:
women will speak using hypercorrectness, aiming for higher prestige by pronouncing words properly.
men will speak aiming for lower prestige pronunciation, seeking to convert prestige for being tough or down to earth.
List of basic assumptions about what defines women's language.
Deborah Jones and Jennifer Coates.
Simultaneous talk is supportive and cooperative, small features such as ta questions, hedging, paralinguistic features show respect for the listener's face needs.
Society Identifies an appropriate way for men and women to speak. Women often instructed to speak following etiquette as with dress or other behaviour.
Zimmerman and West.
Mixed-Sex conversations. men are more likely to interrupt than women, showing dominance.
Argues that mixed sex conversations fails because men fail to respond correctly or at all.
Berko and Brown.
Children understand correct phonology even if they cannot use it.
Studied two-word stage of children, found all countries made the same relationships between grammatical concepts.
B. F. Skinner.
Behaviourist theory. Children learn through imitation. operant conditioning. positive/ negative reinforcement.
however, children may be corrected on statement not grammar. children do not respond to correction. children do not purely imitate.
brain not a blank slate,
Naturally programmed to learn language. Universal grammar.
however ignores the role of caregiver.
Focus on cognative development, comes before language.
Rejects LAD, emphasized importance of interaction with caregiver.
emphasis on social situations.
Importance of doing for child development.
beyond the zone of proximal development.
Cognative Linguisic Approach.
usage based model of acquisition. Pattern-forming. rejects built-in sense of grammar.
Identified fathers use more commands and tease children more. mothers relied on for domestic issues.
however, study very much a product of it's time.
Two main areas of confusion for children are overextension: anological overextension (child links property or use) categorical overextension (same name for all objects in a category)
underextension: child learns general rule but only applies it to singular things.
Categorised development of pronoun acquisition by complexity:
1. children uses a name rather than a pronoun.
2. child recognises a difference between subject and object pronouns but cannot use them correctly.
3. child correctly applies subject and object pronouns.
study into acquisition of negatives:
1. adds negative word at the start.
2. negative words within the sentance.
3. negative word becomes attached to auxiliary verb.
reading for pleasure.
stages of writing development.
Categories of early writing:
three key types of writing developed.
1. expressive writing.
2. poetic writing.
3. transactional writing.
Five spelling stages:
2. semi-phonetic stage.
3. phonetic stage.
4. transitional stage.
5. conventional stage.
Beriter and Scardamalia.
Two levels of writing:
1. knowledge telling strategy.
2. knowledge transforming strategy.