Physical landscapes in the UK: Coastal Landscapes (glossary)
Terms in this set (54)
Rocks are flung at the cliff by powerful waves. They start to erode the cliffs.
the cave becomes bigger due to hydraulic action and abrasion. Eventually the cave breaks through the headland to create an arch.
Pebbles bang together making them smaller and smoother over time.
When a wave moves back down the beach.
A spit which has grown across a bay. It forms a bar of sand with a freshwater lake/lagoon trapped behind it.
Bays are mainly circular and created out of less resistant (soft) rock. They form between the areas of more resistant rock and often have beaches.
Deposited sand/rock/pebbles that have built up.
Adding new material to a beach artificially, e.g. by dumping sand.
Changing the profile or shape of the beach.
A large hole in the cliff caused by waves forcing their ways into cracks in the cliff face.
The decomposition of rock caused by a chemical change.
A steep, high rock face formed by weathering and erosion.
Powerful wave with a strong swash and weak backwash which deposits material on a beach.
Rocks like limestone dissolve.
Top of a wave.
Occurs when material carried by the sea is dropped as energy decreases.
Formed by storm conditions. Has a weak swash and strong backwash and erodes the beach.
Wind cam form depressions in the sand where ponds may form.
At the front of the dunes is the youngest dune called an embryo dune, this is very salty as it's close to the sea.
This is the wearing away of the land by moving agents such as the sea, rivers and glaciers
The distance that wind blows over the sea before reaching land.
These are older, slightly higher and further from the sea than the embryo dune.
A steel wire mesh filled with boulders. It is a type of hard engineering defence.
A wooden barrier built out into the sea to stop the longshore drift or sand and shingle, and to help the beach to grow.
Building artificial structures to reduce or stop the impact of coastal processes.
Water is forced in to cracks in the cliff. Gradually making the cracks bigger and bigger.
Blocks of rock slide downwards.
Longshore drift (LSD)
Transportation of sediment along the coastline. Waves approach the beach at a 45o angle and transport beach material (sediment) up and down the beach.
Allow the sea to erode the coastline but monitor the retreat occurring.
The movement of material downslope.
Weathering processes that cause physical disintegration or break up of exposed rock without any change in the chemical composition of the rock, e.g. freeze-thaw weathering.
Tough plants, such as Marram grass that take root on the dune. These help stabilise the sand and fix the dune in place.
Relief describes the physical features of a landscape, including its height, steepness and how its features are shaped.
Collapse of a cliff face. Individual rocks fall from a cliff.
Large boulders dumped on the beach as part of the coastal defences.
Pebbles bounce along the sea bed in a leap-frogging motion.
Low lying (below sea level) coastal wetland.
Coastal sand hill above the high tide mark, shaped by wind action, covered with grasses and shrubs.
Concrete wall built to protect the coast by deflecting wave energy.
Rapid mass movement where a whole segment of a cliff moves downslope.
Sustainable approach (using natural resources) to managing the coast. E.g. beach nourishment, dune regeneration and marsh creation.
Material dissolved in sea water.
A finger of new land made of sand. It juts out in to the sea from the coast.
The arch collapses as there is nothing to support it. Leaving an isolated rock stack.
The stack gets eroded further by erosion and weathering (wind and rain) to form a stump.
Lighter particles e.g. sand are suspended in the water.
When a wave moves up the beach
Heavy rocks (boulders) are rolled along the sea bed.
Movement of material along a coastline.
Sequence of vegetation (plants) that colonise (take over) an environment. This takes place over hundreds of years.
Ripples in the sea caused by the transfer of energy from the wind blowing over the surface of the sea. The largest waves are formed when winds are very strong, blow for lengthy periods and cross large expanses of water.
Small notch (dent) cut in to the cliff at the level of high tide. Eroded by hydraulic action and abrasion.
Wide sloping surface at the base of a cliff. Eroded by hydraulic erosion and abrasion.
These are taller than the fore dune.
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