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Particle model of Matter
Terms in this set (25)
What is density?
a measure of compactness
What is the formula for density?
m = mass
what are particles in a dense material like?
What would happen if you compressed a material?
The particles would move closer together and become more dense.
How do particles have energy in their kinetic and potential energy stores?
Kinetic energy stores- particles vibrating and moving around
potential energy stores- due to their positions
what is the internal energy of a system?
The total energy that it's particles have in their kinetic and potential energy stores.
What happens to the particles if you heat the system?
It transfers energy to its particles and so they gain energy in their kinetic stores and move faster, increasing the internal energy. This could lead to a change in temperature or a change in state.
How do you calculate change in thermal energy?
mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change
What is specific heat capacity?
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1 °C.
When there is change in state, is mass conserved?
yes because the number of particles doesn't change, they're just arranged differently.
Why is there 'flat spots' on a heating graph?
because energy is being transferred by heating but not being used to change the temperature.
Why are there flat parts on a cooling graph?
Because when a substance is condensing or freezing bonds form between particles which release energy so the internal energy decreases but the temperature doesn't go down until all the substance has changed state.
What is 'specific latent heat'
The amount of energy needed to change 1kg of a substance from one state to another without changing its temperature.
what is the formula for specific latent heat?
What happens as you increase the pressure of a gas?
the average speed of its particles increases.
How do colliding gas particles create pressure?
1 They bang into each other and anything else in the way
2 When they collide they extent a force and so a pressure
3 Faster particles and more frequent collisions lead to an increase in net force, and so a pressure.
what is one way of increasing the speed of gas particles?
Increasing temperature- increase speed- increase pressure
Pressure and volume are inversely proportional, what does his mean?
-When volume goes up, pressure goes down
-When pressure goes up, volume goes down
Why does pressure decrease when volume increases?
because it means the gas particles will be more spread out and so hit the walls of the container less often.
For a fixed mass of gas held at a constant temperature:
pressure × volume = constant
What does pressure of a gas cause?
The pressure of a gas causes a net outwards force at right angles to the surface of the container. There is also a force on the outside of the container due to the pressure of the gas around it.
How can a change in pressure cause a change in volume?
A change in pressure will cause the container to compress or expand, due to the overall force.
How do you 'do work'?
If you transfer energy by applying a force
What does 'doing work' on a gas do to its internal energy?
increases it, which can increase its temperature
Explain how you can 'do work' on a gas mechanically (bike pump)
The gas applies pressure to the plunger of the pump so experts a force on it. Work then has to be done against this force to push down the plunger. This transfers energy to the kinetic stores, increasing the temp.
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Particle Model of Matter
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