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Higher Biology: Unit 3
Terms in this set (110)
Process by which light is taken in and retained by a leaf.
Graph showing the quantity of light absorbed by a pigment at different wavelengths of light.
Graph showing the rate of photosynthesis by a green plant at different wavelengths of light.
Yellow pigments which absorb light and pass the energy to chlorophyll.
Green pigments which absorb light in the red and blue regions of the spectrum.
Technique used to separate the components of a mixture that differ in their degree of solubility in a solvent.
Variety of plant obtained from natural species by selection and/or genetic manipulation and maintained by cultivation.
Ability to access food of adequate quantity and quality to feed the world's population.
Process by which light bounces off a leaf surface.
Process by which light passes through a leaf.
Term referring to a level in a food chain or pyramid.
Enzyme which catalyses the synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi.
Second stage of photosynthesis during which carbon dioxide is taken up and sugar is synthesised.
electron transport chain
Group of protein molecules in the membrane of a chloroplast which makes energy available to pump H+ ions across the membrane and to split water molecules.
Metabolite in the Calvin cycle used to regenerate RuBP and make sugar.
Product of photolysis of water which becomes attached to NADP.
First stage of photosynthesis during which light energy is converted to chemical energy.
Compound which accepts hydrogen released during photolysis of water.
Product of photolysis of water which is required for aerobic respiration.
Breakdown of water during the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis.
ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)
Metabolite in the Calvin cycle which acts as the carbon dioxide acceptor.
Enzyme which fixes carbon dioxide by attaching it to RuBP.
Raw material which becomes split into oxygen and hydrogen during photolysis.
Referring to alleles of genes whose expression results in the formation of harmful characteristics.
Alteration of an organism's genome by the insertion of a DNA sequence from a different organism.
Establishing the order of the nucleotide bases all the way along an organism's DNA.
Improved condition shown by offspring of crosses between two different parental strains.
Process by which one variety of an organism is crossed with a different variety to try to produce offspring better than either parent.
Process by which close relatives are bred with one another and prevented from breeding at random.
Deterioration in the quality of a strain of natural outbreeders that have been forcibly inbred.
Process involving the mating of unrelated members of the same species.
Disordered arrangement of replicate treatments to eliminate bias.
One of several copies of a treatment set up to reduce the effect of experimental error.
Process by which only the organisms with the best features are chosen as parents of the next generation.
Procedure carried out between an organism whose genotype for a trait is unknown and an organism who is homozygous recessive for the trait.
Way in which a plot is dealt with compared with other plots.
Weed that completes its lifecycle within one year.
Reduction of a pest population by the deliberate introduction of one of its natural enemies.
Means of control of weeds, pests and pathogens using herbicides, pesticides and fungicides.
Type of non-selective herbicide that destroys all green plant tissue which it meets.
Agricultural practice whereby each of a series of different crop plants is grown in turn on the same piece of ground.
Traditional, non-chemical, means of controlling weeds, pests and pathogens that affect crop plants.
integrated pest management
Combination of techniques including chemical, biological and cultural means of control.
Vast population of a single species cultivated for economic efficiency.
Weed that continues to grow for several years.
Non-biodegradable chemical whose molecules accumulate along a food chain.
Chemical used to control pests.
Type of pest that survives treatment by a pesticide and enjoys a selective advantage.
Type of herbicide that mimics plant growth substances and kills broad-leaved plants by stimulating their growth to a harmful extent.
Type of herbicide that is absorbed by a plant and transported internally to all parts where it has a lethal effect.
Unwanted plant that poses economic problems when it is able to multiply among, and compete with, a crop.
altered level of activity
Behaviour involving extreme expression such as hyper-aggression or excessive sleeping.
Moral values and rules that ought to govern human conduct.
List of all the different observed behaviours shown by an animal.
Study of animal behaviour.
Behaviour that is directed inappropriately towards the animal itself, another animal or its surroundings.
Process that arouses and directs the behaviour of an animal to satisfy one of its basic needs.
Type of test that gives an animal a choice between two conditions to determine which one it prefers.
Access to company of other members of the animal's own kind.
Behaviour pattern in the form of repetitive movements lacking in variation.
Animal's quality of life, regarded as acceptable if the animal can behave naturally, grow well and live free of disease.
Gradual change in parallel of two symbiotic organisms which increases their level of adaptation to suit a dependent or interdependent relationship.
Mode of transmission of parasites which occurs when an infected host physically encounters another host.
Partner that is harmed by loss of resources to a parasite in a symbiotic relationship.
Relationship that exists between the two partners involved in a mutualistic relationship.
Symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit.
Partner that benefits by obtaining resources from a host in a symbiotic relationship.
Symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits at the expense of another organism.
Form of parasite which, on being released, is able to survive adverse conditions for a long time before meeting a new host.
Ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live in direct contact with one another.
Organism that carries a parasite from one host to another.
Type of social behaviour used to concede defeat to a dominant rival.
Close relationship among female primates in a social group where reproductive success can increase social status.
Unselfish behaviour unfavourable to the donor but which benefits the recipient.
Method of obtaining food that benefits subordinate animals in addition to the group's dominant leader.
Member of a social group able to intimidate all other members without being attacked in return.
Process by which primates clean one another's fur while reducing tension within their social group.
Type of species that plays a critical role in the structure and working of an ecosystem.
Process which favours acts of apparent altruism carried out to help close relatives.
Type of social behaviour where adult primates provide offspring with food and protection.
Unit consisting of several members of a species who live together and respond to one another.
Graded order of rank among members of a social group resulting from aggressive behaviour.
An individual's level of rank in a social hierarchy.
Ritualised behaviour used to intimidate a rival without engaging in a real fight.
Non-reproductive member of an insect colony that co-operates with close relatives to ensure the survival of the young.
Total variation that exists among all living things.
Reduction in the quality of a natural ecosystem as a result of human activity.
Most prevalent species that determines the appearance and composition of the community.
Number of distinct ecosystems present in a defined area.
Irreversible loss of a species.
Measure of the number or percentage of species irreversibly lost per unit of time.
State found among members of a population resulting from genetic variation.
Consequence of human activity leading to possible extinction of many species.
Area surrounded by a dissimilar ecosystem that cannot be colonised by the enclosed area's species.
mass extinction event
Disruptive occurrence that changes the global environment and causes species to perish.
The largest terrestrial animals belonging to a region or period of time.
Feature of an ecosystem based on the richness of its species and their relative abundance.
Result of the wiping out of a significant percentage of a population and its genetic diversity, leaving it ill-equipped to adapt to environmental change.
Cause of the bottleneck effect, typically a natural disaster.
climate change modelling
Computer programmes that use quantitative methods to simulate the effect of various factors on climate.
Protection and careful management of natural resources.
Global warming by infra-red rays trapped in the Earth's atmosphere by certain gases.
Narrow strip of quality habitat by which a species can move between habitat fragments.
Formation of several fragments whose total surface area is less than that of the original habitat.
Foreign species that has been cultivated intentionally or released accidentally by human activities.
Term for a naturalised species that has spread rapidly and has out-competed native species.
Non-native species that has established itself within wild communities.
Removal and use of a species at a rate that exceeds their maximum rate of reproduction.
Return to and resettlement in a habitat following local extinctions.
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